Next Article in Journal
The Mediating Role of Self-Concept between Sports-Related Physical Activity and Mathematical Achievement in Fourth Graders
Next Article in Special Issue
Heat Warnings in Switzerland: Reassessing the Choice of the Current Heat Stress Index
Previous Article in Journal
Not Getting What You Want? The Impact of Income Comparisons on Subjective Well-Being—Findings of a Population-Based Longitudinal Study in Germany
Previous Article in Special Issue
Heat Stress Response to National-Committed Emission Reductions under the Paris Agreement
Open AccessReview

Overview of Existing Heat-Health Warning Systems in Europe

Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss, 8058 Zurich Airport, Switzerland
Meteorology Group, Dept. Applied Mathematics and Computer Sciences, University of Cantabria, 39005 Santander, Spain
Centre of Bioclimatology (CIBIC), University of Florence, 50144 Florence, Italy
Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry (DAGRI), University of Florence, 50144 Florence, Italy
Institute of BioEconomy—National Research Council, 50019 Florence, Italy
FAME Laboratory, Department of Exercise Science, University of Thessaly, 42100 Trikala, Greece
Department of Nutrition and Exercise Sciences, University of Copenhagen (NEXS), 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2657;
Received: 28 June 2019 / Revised: 18 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 25 July 2019
The frequency of extreme heat events, such as the summer of 2003 in Europe, and their corresponding consequences for human beings are expected to increase under a warmer climate. The joint collaboration of institutional agencies and multidisciplinary approaches is essential for a successful development of heat-health warning systems and action plans which can reduce the impacts of extreme heat on the population. The present work constitutes a state-of-the-art review of 16 European heat-health warning systems and heat-health action plans, based on the existing literature, web search (over the National Meteorological Services websites) and questionnaires. The aim of this study is to pave the way for future heat-health warning systems, such as the one currently under development in the framework of the Horizon 2020 HEAT-SHIELD project. Some aspects are highlighted among the variety of examined European warning systems. The meteorological variables that trigger the warnings should present a clear link with the impact under consideration and should be chosen depending on the purpose and target of the warnings. Setting long-term planning actions as well as pre-alert levels might prevent and reduce damages due to heat. Finally, education and communication are key elements of the success of a warning system. View Full-Text
Keywords: heat-health warning system; action plan; intervention strategy; user-tailored; heat stress heat-health warning system; action plan; intervention strategy; user-tailored; heat stress
MDPI and ACS Style

Casanueva, A.; Burgstall, A.; Kotlarski, S.; Messeri, A.; Morabito, M.; Flouris, A.D.; Nybo, L.; Spirig, C.; Schwierz, C. Overview of Existing Heat-Health Warning Systems in Europe. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2657.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop