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Relationships between Parental Socialization Styles, Empathy and Connectedness with Nature: Their Implications in Environmentalism

Department of Education and Social Psychology, Pablo de Olavide University, 41013 Seville, Spain
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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2461; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142461
Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 11 July 2019
Parents exert a strong influence on several adjustment outcomes. However, little is known about their influence on adolescents’ connectedness with the environment. This study examined the relationships between parenting styles, empathy and connectedness with the environment. The two-dimensional socialization model was used with four resulting styles: Indulgent, authoritative, neglectful and authoritarian. The sample comprised 797 adolescents (52.7% girls) from six public secondary schools who were aged between 12 and 16 years (M = 13.94, SD = 1.28). The results showed significant relationships between parental socialization styles, empathy and connectedness with nature. It was also observed that adolescents from indulgent and authoritative families showed higher levels of empathy and connectedness with the environment than adolescents raised by authoritarian and neglectful parents, with males from such families consistently presenting the lowest levels of empathy and connectedness, which was not the case among women. Additionally, women, regardless of the parental style in which they had been educated, showed greater cognitive and emotional empathy with the natural environment, while adolescents raised in indulgent and authoritative families displayed higher levels of empathy and connectedness than those with authoritarian and neglectful parents. These results suggest that indulgent and authoritative styles are stronger enablers of empathy and connectedness with nature. View Full-Text
Keywords: parental socialization; adolescence; empathy with nature; connectedness with nature parental socialization; adolescence; empathy with nature; connectedness with nature
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MDPI and ACS Style

Musitu-Ferrer, D.; León-Moreno, C.; Callejas-Jerónimo, J.E.; Esteban-Ibáñez, M.; Musitu-Ochoa, G. Relationships between Parental Socialization Styles, Empathy and Connectedness with Nature: Their Implications in Environmentalism. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2461. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142461

AMA Style

Musitu-Ferrer D, León-Moreno C, Callejas-Jerónimo JE, Esteban-Ibáñez M, Musitu-Ochoa G. Relationships between Parental Socialization Styles, Empathy and Connectedness with Nature: Their Implications in Environmentalism. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(14):2461. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142461

Chicago/Turabian Style

Musitu-Ferrer, Daniel; León-Moreno, Celeste; Callejas-Jerónimo, Juan E.; Esteban-Ibáñez, Macarena; Musitu-Ochoa, Gonzalo. 2019. "Relationships between Parental Socialization Styles, Empathy and Connectedness with Nature: Their Implications in Environmentalism" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16, no. 14: 2461. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142461

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