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Open AccessArticle

Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Somalis Living in Norway and Somaliland

1
Department of Community Medicine and Global Health, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, 0318 Oslo, Norway
2
College of Medicine & Health Science, University of Hargeisa, 002563 Hargeisa, Somaliland
3
Health Services Research, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 0213 Oslo, Norway
4
International Relations Division, Ministry of Health and Sports, Nay Pyi, Taw 15011, Myanmar
5
Division of Mental and Physical Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 0473 Oslo, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2353; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132353
Received: 5 June 2019 / Revised: 26 June 2019 / Accepted: 28 June 2019 / Published: 3 July 2019
Objective: We aimed to assess and compare cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and predict the future risk of CVD among Somalis living in Norway and Somaliland. Method: We included participants (20–69 years) from two cross-sectional studies among Somalis living in Oslo (n = 212) and Hargeisa (n = 1098). Demographic data, history of CVD, smoking, alcohol consumption, anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fasting serum glucose, and lipid profiles were collected. The predicted 10-year risk of CVD was calculated using Framingham risk score models. Results: In women, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly higher in Hargeisa compared to Oslo (p < 0.001), whereas no significant differences were seen in men. The ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was significantly higher in Hargeisa compared to Oslo among both men (4.4 versus 3.9, p = 0.001) and women (4.1 versus 3.3, p < 0.001). Compared to women, men had higher Framingham risk scores, but there were no significant differences in Framingham risk scores between Somalis in Oslo and Hargeisa. Conclusion: In spite of the high body mass index (BMI) in Oslo, most CVD risk factors were higher among Somali women living in Hargeisa compared to those in Oslo, with similar patterns suggested in men. However, the predicted CVD risks based on Framingham models were not different between the locations. View Full-Text
Keywords: Somalis; comparison; cardiovascular disease risk factors; Framingham risk score Somalis; comparison; cardiovascular disease risk factors; Framingham risk score
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Ahmed, S.H.; Marjerrison, N.; Kjøllesdal, M.K.R.; Stigum, H.; Htet, A.S.; Bjertness, E.; Meyer, H.E.; Madar, A.A. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Somalis Living in Norway and Somaliland. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2353.

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