Next Article in Journal
Relationships between Sleep Patterns, Health Risk Behaviors, and Health Outcomes among School-Based Population of Adolescents: A Panel Analysis of the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey
Previous Article in Journal
Air Pollution Predicts Harsh Moral Judgment
Open AccessReview

A Systematic Review to Evaluate the Association between Clean Cooking Technologies and Time Use in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

1
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
2
Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
3
Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
4
Department of Public Health and Policy, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2277; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132277
Received: 16 May 2019 / Revised: 18 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 27 June 2019
Interventions implementing clean fuels to mitigate household air pollution in low- and middle-income countries have focused on environmental and health outcomes, but few have evaluated time savings. We performed a systematic review, searching for studies of clean fuel interventions that measured time use. A total of 868 manuscripts were identified that met the search criteria, but only 2 met the inclusion criteria. Both were cross-sectional and were conducted in rural India. The first surveyed the female head of household (141 using biogas and 58 using biomass) and reported 1.2 h saved per day collecting fuel and 0.7 h saved cooking, resulting in a combined 28.9 days saved over an entire year. The second surveyed the head of household (37 using biogas and 68 using biomass, 13% female) and reported 1.5 h saved per day collecting fuel, or 22.8 days saved over a year. Based on these time savings, we estimated that clean fuel use could result in a 3.8% or 4.7% increase in daily income, respectively, not including time or costs for fuel procurement. Clean fuel interventions could save users time and money. Few studies have evaluated this potential benefit, suggesting that prospective studies or randomized controlled trials are needed to adequately measure gains. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cooking; air pollution; time; wage; biomass; stoves Cooking; air pollution; time; wage; biomass; stoves
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Simkovich, S.M.; Williams, K.N.; Pollard, S.; Dowdy, D.; Sinharoy, S.; Clasen, T.F.; Puzzolo, E.; Checkley, W. A Systematic Review to Evaluate the Association between Clean Cooking Technologies and Time Use in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2277.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop