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Prevalence of Burnout among Primary Health Care Staff and Its Predictors: A Study in Iran

Department of Health Services Management, School of Management and Medical Education, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Deputy of Health Affairs, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI), Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
The College of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwanjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747, Korea
Faculty of Finance and Accounting, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2249;
Received: 2 June 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 22 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Patient Satisfaction with Health Services)
PDF [336 KB, uploaded 26 June 2019]


Burnout, which is an emerging challenge in health systems, is very common among primary health care (PHC) workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the level of burnout among PHC workers, and its predictive factors, in a region in the west of Iran. In this cross-sectional study, all the health network staff (n = 539) were enrolled. The data collection instrument was the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), which consists of 22 items and the three subscales of emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and personal achievement (PA). High scores in EE and DP and low scores in PA are indicative of high burnout. Logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of high burnout. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. The findings showed that 90.5% of the staff had high DP, 55.3% had high EE, and 98.9% had low PA scores. Also, 52.9% (277 people) of the staff suffered from high burnout. Single people (OR = 3.33), less experienced employees (OR = 9.09), people aged over 35 years (OR = 2.35), physicians (OR = 1.72), and staff with permanent employment (OR = 5.0) were more likely to suffer high levels of burnout. We conclude that burnout is a common problem in PHC workers. Less experienced, younger, single employees and physicians were more at risk of suffering from high burnout. Preventive measures, such as strengthening social skills, communication competencies, and coping strategies, and reduction of risk factors such as job stress, are suggested for reducing employees’ risk of burnout. View Full-Text
Keywords: burnout; primary health care; occupational health; Iran burnout; primary health care; occupational health; Iran
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Zarei, E.; Ahmadi, F.; Sial, M.S.; Hwang, J.; Thu, P.A.; Usman, S.M. Prevalence of Burnout among Primary Health Care Staff and Its Predictors: A Study in Iran. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2249.

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