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Heavy Metals in Agricultural Soils of the Lihe River Watershed, East China: Spatial Distribution, Ecological Risk, and Pollution Source

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Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey, 477 Huanshi East Road, Guangzhou 510075, China
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School of Geography and Ocean Science, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Road, Nanjing 210023, China
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College of Forestry, Nanjing Forestry University, 159 Longpan Road, Nanjing 210037, China
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Institute of Land and Urban-Rural Development, Zhejiang University of Finance & Economics, Hangzhou 310018, China
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College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018, China
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2094; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122094
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 31 May 2019 / Accepted: 4 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
Concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc in agricultural soils at 32 sites in the Lihe River Watershed of the Taihu region, East China, and their potential ecological risks and possible sources were investigated. Enrichment factor analysis demonstrated enrichment in the order Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu > Ni > Cr. The potential ecological risk index and risk assessment code analyses indicated that, of the metals studied, Cd posed the most significant ecological risk in the study area. Statistical analyses, GIS mapping, and enrichment factor analysis suggested that Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn were derived mainly from anthropogenic sources, including agricultural, industrial, and vehicular emissions, while Cr and Ni were mainly from natural sources. Positive matrix factorization revealed that Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were sourced from industrial and vehicular emissions (73.7%, 21.3%, 71.4%, 20.3%, 75.0%, and 62.2%, respectively), the agricultural sector (26.3%, 36.3%, 6.8%, 38.9%, 15.7%, and 6.9%, respectively), and parent materials (0%, 42.4%, 21.8%, 40.8%, 9.2%, and 30.9%, respectively). It was recommended that strategies be implemented to reduce industrial point-source pollution. View Full-Text
Keywords: source apportionment; GIS mapping; enrichment factor; PMF; industrial and agricultural activity; parent material source apportionment; GIS mapping; enrichment factor; PMF; industrial and agricultural activity; parent material
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Chen, L.; Wang, G.; Wu, S.; Xia, Z.; Cui, Z.; Wang, C.; Zhou, S. Heavy Metals in Agricultural Soils of the Lihe River Watershed, East China: Spatial Distribution, Ecological Risk, and Pollution Source. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2094.

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