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Review

Dietary Sources of Salt in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Literature Review

1
School of Medicine, Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
2
School of Health and Society, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
3
Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2082; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122082
Received: 19 May 2019 / Revised: 25 May 2019 / Accepted: 6 June 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
Rapid urbanization in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is transforming dietary patterns from reliance on traditional staples to increased consumption of energy-dense foods high in saturated fats, trans fats, sugars, and salt. A systematic literature review was conducted to determine major food sources of salt in LMICs that could be targeted in strategies to lower population salt intake. Articles were sourced using Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, and grey literature. Inclusion criteria were: reported dietary intake of Na/salt using dietary assessment methods and food composition tables and/or laboratory analysis of salt content of specific foods in populations in countries defined as low or middle income (LMIC) according to World Bank criteria. Of the 3207 records retrieved, 15 studies conducted in 12 LMICs from diverse geographical regions met the eligibility criteria. The major sources of dietary salt were breads, meat and meat products, bakery products, instant noodles, salted preserved foods, milk and dairy products, and condiments. Identification of foods that contribute to salt intake in LMICs allows for development of multi-faceted approaches to salt reduction that include consumer education, accompanied by product reformulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary salt; sources of salt; salt intake in LMICs; systematic literature review dietary salt; sources of salt; salt intake in LMICs; systematic literature review
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MDPI and ACS Style

Menyanu, E.; Russell, J.; Charlton, K. Dietary Sources of Salt in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Literature Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2082. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122082

AMA Style

Menyanu E, Russell J, Charlton K. Dietary Sources of Salt in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Literature Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(12):2082. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122082

Chicago/Turabian Style

Menyanu, Elias, Joanna Russell, and Karen Charlton. 2019. "Dietary Sources of Salt in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Literature Review" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 12: 2082. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122082

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