Next Article in Journal
Catalytic Oxidation Process for the Degradation of Synthetic Dyes: An Overview
Previous Article in Journal
An Effective Approach for the Multiobjective Regional Low-Carbon Location-Routing Problem
Previous Article in Special Issue
Toddler Temperament Mediates the Effect of Prenatal Maternal Stress on Childhood Anxiety Symptomatology: The QF2011 Queensland Flood Study
Article Menu
Issue 11 (June-1) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Do the Emotions of Middle-Income Mothers Affect Fetal Development More Than Those of High-Income Mothers?—The Association between Maternal Emotion and Fetal Development

1
The Research Institute of Nursing Science, College of Nursing, Seoul National University, Seoul 03080, Korea
2
Department of Nursing, Kyung-In Women’s University, Incheon 21041, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 2065; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16112065
Received: 25 April 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 11 June 2019
  |  
PDF [323 KB, uploaded 11 June 2019]
  |  

Abstract

This study examines the relationship between the emotions of mothers and fetal development and explores the modifying effect that family income has on this relationship. Socio-demographic information, maternal depression, stress, positive and negative emotions, and maternal-fetal attachment data were collected at 16–20 weeks of pregnancy. Data on fetal body weight and biparietal diameter indicating fetal development were collected at 33–35 weeks to observe the longitudinal effects of mothers’ emotions on fetal development. We divided subjects into two groups: those with more than 150% of the median income were classified as the high-income group and less than 150% as the middle-income group. T-test, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis on maternal emotional status and fetal development were performed for each group. A positive correlation was found between maternal-fetal attachment and negative emotion that was associated with the biparietal diameter and fetal body weight only in the middle-income group. Results of the multiple regression analysis were statistically significant, indicating that maternal-fetal attachment was associated with fetal weight. These results show that the management of subjective emotion is associated with healthy development of the fetus and contributes to health equity. View Full-Text
Keywords: maternal-fetal relations; emotions; psychological stress; fetal development; pregnancy maternal-fetal relations; emotions; psychological stress; fetal development; pregnancy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, D.; Lee, I.; Bang, K.-S.; Kim, S.; Yi, Y. Do the Emotions of Middle-Income Mothers Affect Fetal Development More Than Those of High-Income Mothers?—The Association between Maternal Emotion and Fetal Development. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2065.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top