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Change in Municipality-Level Health-Related Social Capital and Depressive Symptoms: Ecological and 5-Year Repeated Cross-Sectional Study from the JAGES

1
Department of Rehabilitation, Tsushima City Hospital, Aichi 496-8537, Japan
2
Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670, Japan
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Department of Social Preventive Medical Sciences, Center for Preventive Medical Sciences, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670, Japan
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Department of Gerontological Evaluation, Center for Gerontology and Social Science, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi 474-8511, Japan
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Department of Social Science, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi 474-8511, Japan
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Department of Rehabilitation and Care, Seijoh University, Aichi 476-8588, Japan
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Department of Health Policy Science, Graduate School of Medical Science, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-9585, Japan
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Department of International and Community Oral Health, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Miyagi 980-8575, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 2038; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16112038
Received: 28 April 2019 / Revised: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 8 June 2019
Prevalence of depressive symptoms is lower in communities with greater social capital (SC). However, it is unclear whether a prevalence of depressive symptoms will decrease in communities where SC has increased. We investigated the relationship between the changes in municipality-level SC and depressive symptoms by using 5-year repeated cross-sectional data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study. In 2010 and 2016, self-reported questionnaires were mailed to functionally independent residents aged 65 years or older living in 44 municipalities; valid responses were received from 72,718 and 84,211 people in 2010 and 2016, respectively. All scores were aggregated at the municipality level. The dependent variable was the change in the prevalence of depressive symptoms that were diagnosed with a 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Independent variables were the score of change in health-related SC indicators, e.g., social participation, social cohesion, and reciprocity. A multiple regression analysis was employed. The average prevalence of depressive symptoms decreased from 28.6% in 2010 to 21.3% in 2016. The increases in the percentages of sports group participation (B, −0.356), and reciprocity scores (B, −0.597) were significantly associated with the decrease in the prevalence of depressive symptoms after adjusting for potential confounding variables. Our findings suggest that community SC might be an intervention for protecting depressive symptoms in municipalities. View Full-Text
Keywords: depression; older adults; population approach; municipality level; social capital; Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study depression; older adults; population approach; municipality level; social capital; Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study
MDPI and ACS Style

Watanabe, R.; Kondo, K.; Saito, T.; Tsuji, T.; Hayashi, T.; Ikeda, T.; Takeda, T. Change in Municipality-Level Health-Related Social Capital and Depressive Symptoms: Ecological and 5-Year Repeated Cross-Sectional Study from the JAGES. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2038.

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