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Open AccessArticle

Parenting Stress and Broader Phenotype in Parents of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Dyslexia or Typical Development

1
Dipartimento di Psicologia, Università di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat n.5, 40127 Bologna, Italy
2
UO NPIA, Servi territoriali, Ausl Bologna, Via Sant’Isaia 90, 40123 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 1878; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16111878
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 24 May 2019 / Published: 28 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parenting and Offspring Health and Well-Being)
In the present study parenting stress and the broader phenotype are investigated in two highly common developmental disorders, namely Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and specific reading impairment (dyslexia). Within a total sample of 130 parents, 27 were parents of children with ADHD (P-ADHD), 38 were parents of children with a diagnosis of dyslexia (P-DYS) and the other 65 participants were parents of children with typical development (P-TD). A battery of cognitive tasks was administered which included verbal and non-verbal Intellectual Quotient (IQ), reading speed (passage and nonwords), verbal fluency and the Attention Network Task (ANT). Reading history, symptoms of ADHD in adults and parenting stress were measured through questionnaires. Group differences evidenced that the P-DYS group had lower scores in the reading tasks, in the verbal fluency task and in the reading history questionnaire. Conversely, the P-ADHD group had more transversal cognitive weaknesses (IQ, reading tasks, verbal fluency) and the highest scores in parenting stress and ADHD symptoms, together with poor reading history. The groups did not differ in the ANT task. Parenting stress was predicted, on the whole sample, by lower socioeconomic status (SES) and number of family members and higher ADHD symptoms. Implications for research and clinical settings are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: parenting stress; broader phenotype; endophenotypes; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; dyslexia parenting stress; broader phenotype; endophenotypes; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; dyslexia
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Bonifacci, P.; Massi, L.; Pignataro, V.; Zocco, S.; Chiodo, S. Parenting Stress and Broader Phenotype in Parents of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Dyslexia or Typical Development. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 1878.

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