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Open AccessArticle

Four Wellbeing Patterns and their Antecedents in Millennials at Work

Department of Psychology, University of Campania, 8100 Caserta, Italy
IVIE & IDOCAL, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
Department of Economics and Management, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, 110111 Bogotá, Colombia
Department of Psychology, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy, [email protected]
Department of Human Resource Management and Psychology, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, 125993 Moscow, Russia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 25;
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 18 December 2018 / Published: 22 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Using Total Worker Health to Advance Worker Health and Safety)
Literature suggests that job satisfaction and health are related to each other in a synergic way. However, this might not always be the case, and they may present misaligned relationships. Considering job satisfaction and mental health as indicators of wellbeing at work, we aim to identify four patterns (i.e., satisfied-healthy, unsatisfied-unhealthy, satisfied-unhealthy, and unsatisfied-healthy) and some of their antecedents. In a sample of 783 young Spanish employees, a two-step cluster analysis procedure showed that the unsatisfied-unhealthy pattern was the most frequent (33%), followed by unsatisfied-healthy (26.6%), satisfied-unhealthy (24.8%) and, finally, the satisfied-healthy pattern (14.3%). Moreover, as hypothesized, discriminant analysis suggests that higher levels of job importance and lower levels of role ambiguity mainly differentiate the satisfied-healthy pattern, whereas overqualification and role overload differentiate, respectively, the unsatisfied-healthy and satisfied-unhealthy patterns. Contrary to our expectations, role conflict also characterizes the satisfied-unhealthy pattern. We discuss the practical and theoretical implications of these findings. View Full-Text
Keywords: health; job satisfaction; wellbeing; wellbeing misalignment; Millennials health; job satisfaction; wellbeing; wellbeing misalignment; Millennials
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Abdi, T.A.; Peiró, J.M.; Ayala, Y.; Zappalà, S. Four Wellbeing Patterns and their Antecedents in Millennials at Work. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 25.

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