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Open AccessArticle

Monitoring and Evaluation Indicators for Climate Change-Related Health Impacts, Risks, Adaptation, and Resilience

1
School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105, USA
2
University of Melbourne, Melbourne 3010, Australia
3
Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies, 14467 Potsdam, Germany
4
The Australian National University, Canberra 0200, Australia
5
Our Planet, Our Health, Wellcome Trust, London NW1 2BE, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1943; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091943
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Health Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessments)
Climate change poses a range of current and future health risks that health professionals need to understand, track, and manage. However, conventional monitoring and evaluation (M&E) as practiced in the health sector, including the use of indicators, does not adequately serve this purpose. Improved indicators are needed in three broad categories: (1) vulnerability and exposure to climate-related hazards; (2) current impacts and projected risks; and (3) adaptation processes and health system resilience. These indicators are needed at the population level and at the health systems level (including clinical care and public health). Selected indicators must be sensitive, valid, and useful. And they must account for uncertainties about the magnitude and pattern of climate change; the broad range of upstream drivers of climate-sensitive health outcomes; and the complexities of adaptation itself, including institutional learning and knowledge management to inform iterative risk management. Barriers and constraints to implementing such indicators must be addressed, and lessons learned need to be added to the evidence base. This paper describes an approach to climate and health indicators, including characteristics of the indicators, implementation, and research needs. View Full-Text
Keywords: adaptation; climate change; climate-sensitive health risks; indicators; resilience adaptation; climate change; climate-sensitive health risks; indicators; resilience
MDPI and ACS Style

Ebi, K.L.; Boyer, C.; Bowen, K.J.; Frumkin, H.; Hess, J. Monitoring and Evaluation Indicators for Climate Change-Related Health Impacts, Risks, Adaptation, and Resilience. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1943.

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