Next Article in Journal
Rapid Population Growth throughout Asia’s Earthquake-Prone Areas: A Multiscale Analysis
Previous Article in Journal
Heavy Metal Contamination Near Industrial Estate Areas in Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Province, Thailand and Human Health Risk Assessment
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1891; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091891

Evaluation of Hand–Dug Wells in Rural Haiti

Department of Geology, Grand Valley State University, 1 Campus Drive, Allendale, MI 49401, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [15341 KB, uploaded 31 August 2018]   |  

Abstract

Water resources, especially safe, potable water, are limited for many Haitians. In areas where shallow groundwater is available, many household water needs such as laundry, bathing, and cooking are supplied by hand–dug wells. In order to better understand the water quality and prevalence of these household wells, 35 hand–dug wells were surveyed and sampled near the Hôpital Albert Schweitzer in Deschapelles, Haiti. Water samples were collected and tested for fecal coliform and Escherichia coli using the IDEXX Colilert–18 method. Of the samples collected, 89 percent were determined unsafe to use as a drinking water source based on the World Health Organization standard of 1.0 colony–forming unit (cfu) E. coli per 100 mL. Sixty–six percent of the wells exceeded recreational/body contact standards for the state of Michigan (130 cfu/100 mL). Some of these wells were deemed suitable for conversion to a new well type called in situ filtration (ISF) wells. In situ filtration wells are installed with an internal sand filter pack, PVC casing, pump, and cap which seals the well from surface contamination and provides additional water treatment as water is pumped. Previous ISF installations have reduced E. coli to safe drinking water levels within 90 days. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater; Haiti; filtration; water treatment; developing country; point of use treatment; household treatment groundwater; Haiti; filtration; water treatment; developing country; point of use treatment; household treatment
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Schram, H.E.; Wampler, P.J. Evaluation of Hand–Dug Wells in Rural Haiti. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1891.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top