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Open AccessArticle

Objectively Measured Neighborhood Walkability and Change in Physical Activity in Older Japanese Adults: A Five-Year Cohort Study

1
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Tokyo Medical University, 6-1-1 Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8402, Japan
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. Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 468-1 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-0845, Japan
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School of International Liberal Studies, Chukyo University, 101 Tokodachi, Kaizu-Cho, Toyota 470-0393, Japan
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Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, 2-579-15 Mikajima, Tokorozawa 359-1192, Japan
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Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0631, USA
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Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Australian Catholic University, Level 5, 215 Spring Street, Melbourne 3000, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1814; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091814
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 22 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
Objectives: This study investigated the longitudinal association between changes in older adults’ physical activity and neighborhood walkability measured by geographic information systems (GISs, (ArcGIS, ESRI Inc., Redlands, CA, USA)). Methods: A mail survey was conducted for Japanese older adults who were randomly selected from three different settlement types. Data on walking, total moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and sociodemographic characteristics were collected at baseline (in 2010) and follow-up (in 2015). Multiple linear regression analyses were employed to assess the association between MVPA change and neighborhood walkability, adjusted for potential confounders. Effect sizes for independent variables on MVPA change were estimated. Results: Data from 731 community-dwelling older adults (43.7% women) were analyzed. During the follow-up, older adults’ MVPA was reduced by 94.4 min/week (−14.2%) on average (675.5 and 579.9 min/week in 2010 and 2015, respectively). Overall, older adults living in highly walkable areas showed a smaller reduction than those in low walkable areas (beta: 99.7 min/week, 95% confidence interval: 28.5–171.0). Similar associations were observed among those in the urban and suburban area, but not in the rural area. Walkability had larger effect sizes for explaining MVPA change than demographic characteristics. In addition, the findings for walking were similar to MVPA. Conclusion: Neighborhood walkability mitigated the 5-year reduction of walking and total MVPA among older adults, especially in urban areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: exercise; built environment; neighborhood environment; prospective cohort study; geographic information system (GIS) exercise; built environment; neighborhood environment; prospective cohort study; geographic information system (GIS)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kikuchi, H.; Nakaya, T.; Hanibuchi, T.; Fukushima, N.; Amagasa, S.; Oka, K.; Sallis, J.F.; Inoue, S. Objectively Measured Neighborhood Walkability and Change in Physical Activity in Older Japanese Adults: A Five-Year Cohort Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1814. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091814

AMA Style

Kikuchi H, Nakaya T, Hanibuchi T, Fukushima N, Amagasa S, Oka K, Sallis JF, Inoue S. Objectively Measured Neighborhood Walkability and Change in Physical Activity in Older Japanese Adults: A Five-Year Cohort Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(9):1814. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091814

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Nakaya, Tomoki; Hanibuchi, Tomoya; Fukushima, Noritoshi; Amagasa, Shiho; Oka, Koichiro; Sallis, James F.; Inoue, Shigeru. 2018. "Objectively Measured Neighborhood Walkability and Change in Physical Activity in Older Japanese Adults: A Five-Year Cohort Study" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 15, no. 9: 1814. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091814

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