Next Article in Journal
Pap Testing in a High-Income Country with Suboptimal Compliance Levels: A Survey on Acceptance Factors among Sicilian Women
Next Article in Special Issue
Pollution Characteristics and Human Health Risks of Elements in Road Dust in Changchun, China
Previous Article in Journal
An Assessment of the Relationships between Extreme Weather Events, Vulnerability, and the Impacts on Human Wellbeing in Latin America
Open AccessArticle

Distribution Characteristics and Ecological Risk Assessment of Tetracyclines Pollution in the Weihe River, China

1
Key Laboratory of Subsurface Hydrology and Ecological Effects in Arid Region, Ministry of Education, Chang’an University, Xi’an 710054, China
2
Xi’an Center of Geological Survey, China Geological Survey, Xi’an 710054, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1803; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091803
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 22 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Environmental Biogeochemistry)
To examine the residual and distributions of tetracycline antibiotics in the Weihe River, SPE-UPLC (solid phase extraction-ultra performance liquid chromatography with UV-Vis detection) was employed to analyze the oxytetracycline (OTC), chlortetracycline (CTC), and minocycline (MC) of 41 surface water and 35 sediment samples collected from main streams, tributaries, and main sewage outlets. The results showed that: (1) The order of residual levels of tetracycline antibiotics in water and sediment from high to low was the following: OTC > CTC > MC., considering the water solubilities are 313 mg/L, 630 mg/L, and 50200mg/L and octanol water partition coefficients (Kow) are 7.94, 4.16, and 1.12 for OTC, CTC, and MC, respectively. Thus, the distribution of antibiotics was not only related to the basic properties of antibiotics, but also some environmental factors. The concentrations of OTC in water and sediment were in the range of 1.56–87.89 ng/L and 6.13–45.38 ng/g (mean value of 16.13 ng/L and 20.60 ng/g), respectively; while CTC was 1.07–26.78 ng/L and 6.17–32.29 ng/g (mean value of 4.96 ng/L and 14.48 ng/g), respectively; and MC was 0.28–12.35 ng/L and 4.80–29.74 ng/g (mean value of 1.70 ng/L and 12.96 ng/g), respectively. There were maximum concentrations in all sewage outlets. Compared with other areas in China, tetracyclines residual in the Weihe river were at a medium level; (2) in spatial distribution, the levels of tetracyclines in water and sediment from the middle and upper reaches were higher than the lower reaches. Meanwhile, the sewage outfalls and livestock farm waste water discharge appeared to be the main sources of tetracycline antibiotics in the Weihe River; (3) ecological risk assessment revealed that in main streams and tributaries, OTC and CTC may be at a low ecological risk level; while in sewage outfalls, they may represent a medium ecological risk level. View Full-Text
Keywords: tetracycline antibiotics; surface water; sediment; Weihe River tetracycline antibiotics; surface water; sediment; Weihe River
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Y.; Fang, J.; Yuan, X.; Chen, Y.; Yang, H.; Fei, X. Distribution Characteristics and Ecological Risk Assessment of Tetracyclines Pollution in the Weihe River, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1803.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop