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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1642; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081642

Aircraft Noise and Psychological Ill-Health: The Results of a Cross-Sectional Study in France

1
Université Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon1, IFSTTAR, UMRESTTE, UMR T_9405, F-69675 Bron, France
2
IFSTTAR, Planning, Mobilities and Environment Department, Transport and Environment Laboratory, F-69675 Bron, France
3
Currently Retired, 69100 Villeurbanne, France
4
IFSTTAR, Transport, Health and Safety Department, F-69675 Bron, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Abstract

Background: The effects of aircraft noise on psychological ill-health have not been largely investigated and remain to be discussed. No study has been performed in France on the health effects of aircraft noise. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between aircraft noise in dB and in terms of annoyance and psychological ill-health in populations living near airports in France. Methods: A total of 1244 individuals older than 18 and living near three French airports (Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Lyon–Saint-Exupéry and Toulouse–Blagnac) were randomly selected to participate in the study. Information about their personal medical history and socioeconomic and lifestyle factors was collected by means of a face-to-face questionnaire performed at their place of residence by an interviewer. Psychological ill-health was evaluated with the 12-item version of the General Heath Questionnaire (GHQ-12). For each participant, outdoor aircraft noise exposure in dB was estimated by linking their home address to noise maps. Objective noise exposure in dB was considered to be the primary exposure of interest. Four noise indicators referring to three different periods of the day were derived and used for the statistical analyses: Lden, LAeq,24hr, LAeq,6hr–22hr, and Lnight. Noise annoyance and noise sensitivity were the secondary risk factors of interest. Logistic regression models were used with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: The participation rate in the study was 30%. Approximately 22% of the participants were considered to have psychological ill-health according to the GHQ-12. No direct association was found between exposure to aircraft noise in dB and psychological ill-health. However, annoyance due to aircraft noise and noise sensitivity were both significantly associated with psychological ill-health. Moreover, a gradient was evidenced between annoyance and psychological ill-health, with increasing ORs from 1.79 (95% CI 1.06–3.03) for people who were not all annoyed to 4.00 (95% CI 1.67–9.55) for extremely annoyed people.Conclusions: These findings confirm the results of previous studies, suggesting there is no direct association between aircraft noise exposure in dB and psychological ill-health, but there is a significant relationship between noise sensitivity or annoyance due to aircraft noise and psychological ill-health. This supports the hypothesis that psychological aspects, such as noise annoyance and noise sensitivity, play important roles in the association between environmental noise and adverse effects on health. However, further studies are necessary in order to better understand the links between these variables. View Full-Text
Keywords: epidemiology; aircraft noise exposure; psychological ill-health epidemiology; aircraft noise exposure; psychological ill-health
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Baudin, C.; Lefèvre, M.; Champelovier, P.; Lambert, J.; Laumon, B.; Evrard, A.-S. Aircraft Noise and Psychological Ill-Health: The Results of a Cross-Sectional Study in France. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1642.

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