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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1609;

A Comparison of Dependence across Different Types of Nicotine Containing Products and Coffee

Fagerstrom Consulting, 18531 Vaxholm, Sweden
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 28 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 30 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Harm Reduction)
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Introduction: Few studies have compared the dependence to different tobacco and nicotine products. Even less is known about how it relates to dependence on other common drugs, e.g., caffeine. In this study degree of dependence was compared between snus, cigarettes, nicotine replacement (NR), electronic cigarettes and coffee. Methods: A random sample of Swedish citizens belonging to an internet panel were contacted from September to October 2017. The responders were asked among other related things about their use of snus, NR, traditional cigarette or e-cigarette use and coffee consumption. The indicators of dependence used were: (A) the Heavy Smoking Index, (B) The proportions that used within 30 min after raising in the morning, (C) rating the first use in the morning as the most important and (D) Stating that it would be very hard to give up entirely. Results: Significantly fewer coffee drinkers started use within 30 min of awakening compared with all other products. The first use of the day was found to be more important for snus users compared with other products. On HSI there was no difference between snus and cigarettes. Snus and cigarettes were rated as being more difficult to give up than NR and coffee. Conclusion: Dependence to traditional cigarettes and snus seem to be relatively similar while NR was rated lower and coffee lowest. Since the prevalence of caffeine use in all forms is so much more prevalent than nicotine there might be more persons in the society heavily dependent on caffeine. Implication: Tobacco products are likely more dependence forming than NR products and coffee although there might be more people dependent on caffeine. The addiction to coffee or caffeine is seldom discussed in the society probably because of the little or no harm it causes. Funding: The Snus Commission in Sweden (snuskommissionen) funded the data collection. No funding used for the analysis and writing of manuscript. View Full-Text
Keywords: dependence; nicotine; tobacco; coffee dependence; nicotine; tobacco; coffee
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Fagerstrom, K. A Comparison of Dependence across Different Types of Nicotine Containing Products and Coffee. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1609.

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