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Open AccessArticle

Assessment of Microbiological Safety of Water in Public Swimming Pools in Guangzhou, China

1
Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou 510440, China
2
School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510030, China
3
Department of Population Health and Reproduction, University of California Davis, California, CA 95616, USA
4
Western Institute for Food Safety and Security, University of California Davis, California, CA 95616, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this article.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1416; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071416
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 5 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recreational Water Illnesses)
This study assessed microbiological safety of water from public swimming pools in Guangzhou, China. Water samples from 39 outdoor municipal swimming pools were collected from late June to early September, 2013 and subjected to detection of protozoa (Giardia and Cryptosporidium) and bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginos, total coliforms, E. coli, E. coli O157, Shigella, and Salmonella). Cryptosporidium and Giardia were both detected in 5 (12.8%) swimming pools. Total coliforms were detected in 4 (10.3%) samples with concentrations ranging from 1.3 to 154.0 MPN/100 mL while E. coli was detected in 4 (10.3%) samples with concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 5.3 MPN/100 mL. P. aeruginosa was detected in 27 (69.2%) samples but E. coli O157, Shigella and Salmonella were not detected. Among these swimming pools, 9 (23%) met the Chinese National Standard of residual chlorine levels and 24 (62%) were tested free of residual chlorine at least once. The multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) analysis showed that all P. aeruginosa isolates belonged to new sequence types (STs) with dominant ST-1764 and ST-D distributed in different locations within the area. Some P. aeruginosa strains were resistant to medically important antibiotics. Results indicate potential public health risks due to the presence of microbiological pathogens in public swimming pools in this area. View Full-Text
Keywords: swimming pool; water; Giardia; Cryptosporidium; P. aeruginosa; antibiotic resistance; multi-locus sequence typing swimming pool; water; Giardia; Cryptosporidium; P. aeruginosa; antibiotic resistance; multi-locus sequence typing
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Wei, X.; Li, J.; Hou, S.; Xu, C.; Zhang, H.; Atwill, E.R.; Li, X.; Yang, Z.; Chen, S. Assessment of Microbiological Safety of Water in Public Swimming Pools in Guangzhou, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1416.

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