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The Impact of Industrial Odors on the Subjective Well-Being of Communities in Colorado

Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Colorado Boulder, Sustainability, Energy and Environment Complex, East Campus, 4001 Discovery Drive, Boulder, CO 80303, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1091;
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 28 May 2018
Odor pollution was identified as a top priority of the community of North Denver. Previous studies that investigated the impact of air pollution in North Denver focused on adverse health effects, rather than mental well-being. This study assessed the impact of odors from industrial sources on the subjective well-being (SWB) of North Denver residents, and of four similar communities in Colorado for comparison. An online survey was sent to participants from Greeley, Fort Collins, Fort Lupton, North Denver, and Pueblo, asking questions about SWB and odors in their areas (n = 351). The evaluation of SWB was performed using a novel approach that appraises three aspects of SWB. This approach of evaluating SWB has not been used in odor exposure studies. A proportional odds logistic regression model was used to estimate nine measures of SWB. The results showed that participants who reported that the air is very fresh or the odor is highly acceptable had higher levels of SWB. This association suggests that residents who live in areas exposed to strong industrial odors had lower levels of SWB. A subset of participants in this study took the survey four times in one year. Longitudinal analysis showed that evaluative satisfaction was slightly associated with seasonality. Both satisfaction with how life turned out and satisfaction with standards of living slightly increased during the fourth quarter of the year. The study also found that four of the nine measures can be used to represent SWB in future studies. Two of those measures were evaluative SWB, and the other two were positive hedonic SWB measures. A comparison between the five communities showed that well-being levels in North Denver and Greeley were not significantly different than those in Fort Collins or Fort Lupton. The comparison, however, showed that Pueblo had the lowest levels of well-being among all communities. View Full-Text
Keywords: evaluative well-being; air quality; Globeville; Elyria Swansea; hedonic well-being evaluative well-being; air quality; Globeville; Elyria Swansea; hedonic well-being
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Eltarkawe, M.A.; Miller, S.L. The Impact of Industrial Odors on the Subjective Well-Being of Communities in Colorado. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1091.

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