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Open AccessArticle

Acute Toxicity of an Emerging Insecticide Pymetrozine to Procambarus clarkii Associated with Rice-Crayfish Culture (RCIS)

1
State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 South Donghu Road, Wuhan 430072, Hubei, China
2
College of Life Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3
Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 0C5, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 984; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050984
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 25 April 2018 / Accepted: 26 April 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
This study aims to evaluate the acute toxicity of pymetrozine to juvenile Procambarus clarkii. Two 96-h toxicity tests were conducted to assess the lethal concentration 50 (LC50) values, behaviors, and histopathology (at 50% of the 96 h LC50) after pymetrozine exposure. The results showed high toxicity of pymetrozine to juvenile P. clarkii in a dose and time dependent manner, with a decreasing LC50 from 1.034 mg/L at 24 h to 0.479 mg/L at 96 h. The maximum allowable concentration (MAC) of pymetrozine for P. clarkii was 0.106 mg/L. Behavioral abnormalities were observed in pymetrozine-treated crayfish, such as incunabular hyperexcitability, subsequent disequilibrium, lethargy, and increased defecation. Significant lesions were observed in all pymetrozine-treated tissues, including: (1) in gill, hemocytic infiltration and 33.27% of epithelial cells lesions; (2) in perigastric organs, 64.37%, 29.06%, and 13.99% of tubules with lumen atrophy, vacuolation, and cell lysis, respectively; (3) in heart, 2.5%, 8.55% and 7.74% of hemocytic infiltration, vacuolization, and hyperplasia, respectively; (4) in stomach, 80.82%, 17.77%, 6.98%, 5.24% of cuticula swelling, vacuolization, muscle fragmentation, hemocytic infiltration, respectively; (5) in midgut, 7.45%, 10.98%, 6.74%, and 13.6% of hyperplasia, tissue lysis and vacuolation, hemocytic infiltration, muscle fracture; and (6) in abdominal muscle, 14.09% of myofiber fracture and lysis. This research demonstrates that pymetrozine is highly toxic to juvenile P. clarkii, with significant effects on mortality, behavior and histopathology at concentrations of ≤1.1 mg/L, while the estimated practical concentration of pymetrozine in rice-crayfish culture water was around 20 times lower than the calculated MAC. View Full-Text
Keywords: pesticide; aquatic toxicology; behavioral effects; histopathology; freshwater crayfish pesticide; aquatic toxicology; behavioral effects; histopathology; freshwater crayfish
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Yu, J.; Xu, E.G.; Li, W.; Jin, S.; Yuan, T.; Liu, J.; Li, Z.; Zhang, T. Acute Toxicity of an Emerging Insecticide Pymetrozine to Procambarus clarkii Associated with Rice-Crayfish Culture (RCIS). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 984.

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