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Article

Expressed Emotion, Shame, and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury

1
Provisional Psychologist, Newcastle Mental Health Service, Newcastle, NSW 2300, Australia
2
Department of Psychiatry, The University of Queensland, Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital, Herston, Brisbane, QLD 4066, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 890; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050890
Received: 14 March 2018 / Revised: 15 April 2018 / Accepted: 26 April 2018 / Published: 30 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Suicide Research)
A cross-sectional study examining relationships between perceived family Expressed Emotion and shame, emotional involvement, depression, anxiety, stress and non-suicidal self-injury, in 264 community and online adults (21.6% male). We compared self-injurers with non-self-injurers, and current with past self-injurers. Self-injurers experienced more family Expressed Emotion (EE) than non-injurers (t(254) = −3.24, p = 0.001), linear contrasts explaining 6% of between-groups variability (F(2, 254) = 7.36, p = 0.001, η2 = 0.06). Differences in EE between current and past self-injurers were not significant. Overall shame accounted for 33% of between-groups variance (F(2, 252) = 61.99, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.33), with linear contrasts indicating self-injurers experienced higher levels compared to non-injurers (t(252) = −8.23, p < 0.001). Current self-injurers reported higher overall shame than past self-injurers (t(252) = 6.78, p < 0.001). In further logistic regression, emotional involvement and overall shame were the only significant predictors of self-injury status. With every one-unit increase in emotional involvement, odds of currently engaging in self-injury decreased by a factor of 0.860. Conversely, a one-unit increase in overall shame was associated with an increase in the odds of being a current self-injurer by a factor of 1.05. The findings have important treatment implications for engaging key family members in intervention and prevention efforts. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-suicidal self-injury; adults; Shame; expressed emotion; emotion dysregulation; depression; anxiety; stress non-suicidal self-injury; adults; Shame; expressed emotion; emotion dysregulation; depression; anxiety; stress
MDPI and ACS Style

Hack, J.; Martin, G. Expressed Emotion, Shame, and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 890. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050890

AMA Style

Hack J, Martin G. Expressed Emotion, Shame, and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(5):890. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050890

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hack, Jessica, and Graham Martin. 2018. "Expressed Emotion, Shame, and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15, no. 5: 890. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050890

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