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Health Impacts of Ambient Air Pollution in Finland

National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), 70701 Kuopio, Finland
Finnish Environmental Institute (SYKE), 00251 Helsinki, Finland
Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), 00560 Helsinki, Finland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 736;
Received: 15 March 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 8 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality and Health)
PDF [2867 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]


Air pollution has been estimated to be one of the leading environmental health risks in Finland. National health impact estimates existing to date have focused on particles (PM) and ozone (O3). In this work, we quantify the impacts of particles, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in 2015, and analyze the related uncertainties. The exposures were estimated with a high spatial resolution chemical transport model, and adjusted to observed concentrations. We calculated the health impacts according to Word Health Organization (WHO) working group recommendations. According to our results, ambient air pollution caused a burden of 34,800 disability-adjusted life years (DALY). Fine particles were the main contributor (74%) to the disease burden, which is in line with the earlier studies. The attributable burden was dominated by mortality (32,900 years of life lost (YLL); 95%). Impacts differed between population age groups. The burden was clearly higher in the adult population over 30 years (98%), due to the dominant role of mortality impacts. Uncertainties due to the concentration–response functions were larger than those related to exposures. View Full-Text
Keywords: disease burden; mortality; morbidity; particulate matter; fine particles; ozone; nitrogen dioxide disease burden; mortality; morbidity; particulate matter; fine particles; ozone; nitrogen dioxide

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Lehtomäki, H.; Korhonen, A.; Asikainen, A.; Karvosenoja, N.; Kupiainen, K.; Paunu, V.-V.; Savolahti, M.; Sofiev, M.; Palamarchuk, Y.; Karppinen, A.; Kukkonen, J.; Hänninen, O. Health Impacts of Ambient Air Pollution in Finland. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 736.

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