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Article

A Spatial Panel Data Analysis of Economic Growth, Urbanization, and NOx Emissions in China

1
School of Statistics and Mathematics, Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, Wuhan 430073, China
2
School of Finance, Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, Wuhan 430073, China
3
Computational Social Science Laboratory, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44240, USA
4
Faculty of Mathematics and Statistics, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040725
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 7 April 2018 / Accepted: 8 April 2018 / Published: 11 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Environment, Green Operations and Sustainability)
Is nitrogen oxides emissions spatially correlated in a Chinese context? What is the relationship between nitrogen oxides emission levels and fast-growing economy/urbanization? More importantly, what environmental preservation and economic developing policies should China’s central and local governments take to mitigate the overall nitrogen oxides emissions and prevent severe air pollution at the provincial level in specific locations and their neighboring areas? The present study aims to tackle these issues. This is the first research that simultaneously studies the nexus between nitrogen oxides emissions and economic development/urbanization, with the application of a spatial panel data technique. Our empirical findings suggest that spatial dependence of nitrogen oxides emissions distribution exists at the provincial level. Through the investigation of the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) embedded within the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology (STIRPAT) framework, we conclude something interesting: an inverse N-shaped EKC describes both the income-nitrogen oxides nexus and the urbanization-nitrogen oxides nexus. Some well-directed policy advice is provided to reduce nitrogen oxides in the future. Moreover, these results contribute to the literature on development and pollution. View Full-Text
Keywords: nitrogen oxides emissions; urbanization; sustainable development; EKC; spatial effects nitrogen oxides emissions; urbanization; sustainable development; EKC; spatial effects
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ge, X.; Zhou, Z.; Zhou, Y.; Ye, X.; Liu, S. A Spatial Panel Data Analysis of Economic Growth, Urbanization, and NOx Emissions in China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 725. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040725

AMA Style

Ge X, Zhou Z, Zhou Y, Ye X, Liu S. A Spatial Panel Data Analysis of Economic Growth, Urbanization, and NOx Emissions in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(4):725. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040725

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ge, Xiangyu, Zhimin Zhou, Yanli Zhou, Xinyue Ye, and Songlin Liu. 2018. "A Spatial Panel Data Analysis of Economic Growth, Urbanization, and NOx Emissions in China" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15, no. 4: 725. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040725

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