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Open AccessArticle

Geospatial Analysis and Seasonal Distribution of West Nile Virus Vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) in Southern Ontario, Canada

1
Centre for Biotechnology, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada
2
Centre for Vector-Borne Disease, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada
3
Department of Geography and Tourism Studies, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada
4
Department of Biological Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada
5
Entomogen Inc., St. Catharines, ON L2R 2N6, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040614
Received: 3 February 2018 / Revised: 17 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
The purpose of this study was to establish geospatial and seasonal distributions of West Nile virus vectors in southern Ontario, Canada using historical surveillance data from 2002 to 2014. We set out to produce mosquito abundance prediction surfaces for each of Ontario’s thirteen West Nile virus vectors. We also set out to determine whether elevation and proximity to conservation areas and provincial parks, wetlands, and population centres could be used to improve our model. Our results indicated that the data sets for Anopheles quadrimaculatus, Anopheles punctipennis, Anopheles walkeri, Culex salinarius, Culex tarsalis, Ochlerotatus stimulans, and Ochlerotatus triseriatus were not suitable for geospatial modelling because they are randomly distributed throughout Ontario. Spatial prediction surfaces were created for Aedes japonicus and proximity to wetlands, Aedes vexans and proximity to population centres, Culex pipiens/restuans and proximity to population centres, Ochlerotatus canadensis and elevation, and Ochlerotatus trivittatus and proximity to population centres using kriging. Seasonal distributions are presented for all thirteen species. We have identified both when and where vector species are most abundant in southern Ontario. These data have the potential to contribute to a more efficient and focused larvicide program and West Nile virus awareness campaigns. View Full-Text
Keywords: West Nile virus; Ontario; Canada; mosquito; biogeography; vector; Aedes; Anopheles; Culex; Ochlerotatus West Nile virus; Ontario; Canada; mosquito; biogeography; vector; Aedes; Anopheles; Culex; Ochlerotatus
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Giordano, B.V.; Turner, K.W.; Hunter, F.F. Geospatial Analysis and Seasonal Distribution of West Nile Virus Vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) in Southern Ontario, Canada. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 614.

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