Urban lakes play a vital role in the sustainable development of urbanized areas. In this freshwater ecosystem, massive microbial communities can drive the recycling of nutrients and regulate the water quality. However, water bacterial and fungal communities in the urban lakes are not well understood. In the present work, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was combined with community level physiological profiles (CLPPs) and Illumina Miseq sequence techniques to determine the diversity and composition of the water bacterial and fungal community in three urban lakes, namely Xingqing lake (LX), Geming lake (LG) and Lianhu lake (LL), located in Xi’an City (Shaanxi Province, China). The results showed that these three lakes were eutrophic water bodies. The highest total nitrogen (TN) was observed in LL, with a value of 12.1 mg/L, which is 2 times higher than that of LG. The permanganate index (CODMn
) concentrations were 21.6 mg/L, 35.4 mg/L and 28.8 mg/L in LG, LL and LX, respectively (p
< 0.01). Based on the CLPPs test, the results demonstrated that water bacterial communities in the LL and LX urban lakes had higher carbon source utilization ability. A total of 62,742 and 55,346 high quality reads were grouped into 894 and 305 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for bacterial and fungal communities, respectively. Water bacterial and fungal community was distributed across 14 and 6 phyla. The most common phyla were Proteobacteriaand Cyanobacteria. Cryptomycota was particularly dominant in LL, while Chytridiomycota and Entomophthormycota were the most abundant fungal phyla, accounting for 95% of the population in the LL and 56% in the LG. Heat map and redundancy analysis (RDA) highlighted the dramatic differences of water bacterial communities among three urban lakes. Meanwhile, the profiles of fungal communities were significantly correlated with the water quality parameters (e.g., CODMn
and total nitrogen, TN). Several microbes (Legionella
sp. and Streptococcus
sp.) related to human diseases, such as infectious diseases, were also found. The results from this study provides useful information related to the water quality and microbial community compositions harbored in the aquatic ecosystems of urban lakes.
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