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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(3), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15030441

A Feasibility Study of Ammonia Recovery from Coking Wastewater by Coupled Operation of a Membrane Contactor and Membrane Distillation

1
Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, No. 84 Gungjuan Rd., Taishan Dist., New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan
2
Material and Chemical Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 321 Sec. 2, Kuang Fu Rd., Hsinchu 300, Taiwan
3
Institute of Environmental Engineering and Management, National Taipei University of Technology, No.1, Sec. 3, Chung Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 January 2018 / Revised: 24 February 2018 / Accepted: 28 February 2018 / Published: 3 March 2018
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Abstract

More than 80% of ammonia (NH3) in the steel manufacturing process wastewater is contributed from the coking wastewater, which is usually treated by biological processes. However, the NH3 in the coking wastewater is typically too high for biological treatment due to its inhibitory concentration. Therefore, a two-stage process including a hollow fiber membrane contactor (HFMC) and a modified membrane distillation (MD) system was developed and applied to reduce and recover NH3 from coking wastewater. The objectives of this paper are to evaluate different membrane materials, receiving solutions, and operation parameters for the system, remove NH3 from the coking wastewater to less than 300 mg N/L, which is amenable to the biological process, and recover ammonia solution for reuse. As a result, the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) HFMC using sulfuric acid as a receiving solution can achieve a maximum NH3-N transmembrane flux of 1.67 g N/m2·h at pH of 11.5 and reduce NH3 in the coking wastewater to less than 300 mg N/L. The NH3 in the converted ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) was then recovered by the modified MD using ice water as the receiving solution to produce ≥3% of ammonia solution for reuse. View Full-Text
Keywords: ammonia; coking wastewater; hollow fiber membrane contactor; membrane distillation; PTFE hollow fiber ammonia; coking wastewater; hollow fiber membrane contactor; membrane distillation; PTFE hollow fiber
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Lin, P.-H.; Horng, R.-Y.; Hsu, S.-F.; Chen, S.-S.; Ho, C.-H. A Feasibility Study of Ammonia Recovery from Coking Wastewater by Coupled Operation of a Membrane Contactor and Membrane Distillation. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 441.

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