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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020307

Acute Effects of Ambient PM2.5 on All-Cause and Cause-Specific Emergency Ambulance Dispatches in Japan

1
Department of Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540, Japan
2
Emergency and General Medicine, Kumamoto University Hospital, Kumamoto 860-8556, Japan
3
Center for Environmental Science in Saitama, Kazo, Saitama 347-0115, Japan
4
Center for Health and Environmental Risk Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 7 February 2018 / Accepted: 9 February 2018 / Published: 9 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Abstract

Short-term health effects of ambient PM2.5 have been established with numerous studies, but evidence in Asian countries is limited. This study aimed to investigate the short-term effects of PM2.5 on acute health outcomes, particularly all-cause, cardiovascular, respiratory, cerebrovascular and neuropsychological outcomes. We utilized daily emergency ambulance dispatches (EAD) data from eight Japanese cities (2007–2011). Statistical analyses included two stages: (1) City-level generalized linear model with Poisson distribution; (2) Random-effects meta-analysis in pooling city-specific effect estimates. Lag patterns were explored using (1) unconstrained-distributed lags (lag 0 to lag 7) and (2) average lags (lag: 0–1, 0–3, 0–5, 0–7). In all-cause EAD, significant increases were observed in both shorter lag (lag 0: 1.24% (95% CI: 0.92, 1.56)) and average lag 0–1 (0.64% (95% CI: 0.23, 1.06)). Increases of 1.88% and 1.48% in respiratory and neuropsychological EAD outcomes, respectively, were observed at lag 0 per 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5. While respiratory outcomes demonstrated significant average effects, no significant effect was observed for cardiovascular outcomes. Meanwhile, an inverse association was observed in cerebrovascular outcomes. In this study, we observed that effects of PM2.5 on all-cause, respiratory and neuropsychological EAD were acute, with average effects not exceeding 3 days prior to EAD onset. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; ambient PM2.5; emergency ambulance dispatches; short-term exposure air pollution; ambient PM2.5; emergency ambulance dispatches; short-term exposure
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Phung, V.L.H.; Ueda, K.; Kasaoka, S.; Seposo, X.; Tasmin, S.; Yonemochi, S.; Phosri, A.; Honda, A.; Takano, H.; Michikawa, T.; Nitta, H. Acute Effects of Ambient PM2.5 on All-Cause and Cause-Specific Emergency Ambulance Dispatches in Japan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 307.

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