- freely available
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2908; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122908
3.2. Health-Promoting Food Pricing Policies
“I reckon that it is not visible to the average person in terms of what pricing policies stores have … and therefore not as effective. … I don’t think that translates to the customer that they’re getting a good deal on whatever they’re getting a good deal on.”(Interviewee 47, Health professional)
3.3.1. Process of Decision-Making
“… we are working with (X) communities at the moment to reduce the sale of full sugar soft drink. And I must note the communities or the storeowners approached us about it. So we talk about the health stats every quarter. But now that there’s more education around you know, the impacts of diet and poor health and those things. Now storeowners are saying, ‘What can we do to improve these outcomes?’”(Interviewee 40, Retailer)
3.3.3. Policy Objectives
3.3.4. Decision-Making Criteria
“Unintended consequences—I don’t think we really considered at all. It’s definitely not, if we do, if we drop the price of milk, what will happen next? I don’t think we considered that at all. We, our presumption is always that they (i.e., customers) will continue to spend more money in the store.”(Interviewee 9, Retailer)
3.3.5. Evidence Informing Decision-Making
“So a Board that’s not getting nutritional reports back to them, from the store is really not being told enough of the key information. … So that it’s always in their mind and they can see what the store’s doing and then they start to think about their own, well, what if we did this, why can’t we do that, you know. ‘Cause management (i.e., retailers) doesn’t have all the answers.”(Interviewee 23, Retailer)
3.4. Strengthening the Decision-Making Process
3.4.1. Supporting Roles of Decision-Makers
3.4.2. Accessing and Strengthening the Evidence Base
“… all the journal articles and big reports and what not are nice, but even people within our (health) organization wanted like almost sound bites, like stories and we needed options in the community and say, ‘This is what’s been done before, here’s the stories and you can choose from these options.’”(Interviewee 11, Health professional)
4.1. Designing Health-Promoting Food Pricing Policy
4.2. Enhancing Policy Development Processes
4.3. Strengths and Limitations
Conflicts of Interest
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|Food/Beverage Targeted||Impact on Selling Price||Duration||Administration|
|Fruit and vegetables—all fresh||Approximately 20% to 25% discount or equal to, to ≤30% of urban retail prices||Ongoing||Store|
|Fruit and vegetables—all fresh, frozen, canned and dried||Approximately 20% discount||Ongoing||Store|
|Water—bottled||Various, example $0.53, $1.00 and $2.00 for 600 mL||Ongoing||Store and manufacturer|
|Fruit and vegetables—a small range of fresh items||5% to 10% discount or comparable to urban retail prices||Short-term, rotating||Store and supplier|
|Dairy products—fresh milk, yoghurt and cheese||Approximately 20% discount||Ongoing||Store|
|Dairy products—low-fat fresh milks||Low-fat milk retailed for the price of full cream milk||Ongoing||Store; Store and manufacturer|
|Bread—multigrain and wholemeal bread||$1.00 less than white bread||Ongoing||Store|
|Healthy foods 1||n/a||Ongoing and short-term||Store; Store and supplier|
|Beverages—bottled water and artificially sweetened soft-drink||Various, example bulk packs of bottled water retailing for less than the equivalent volume achieved in single units||Short-term, rotating||Store and manufacturer|
|Fruit and vegetables—fresh; fresh, frozen, canned and dried||Various, example a $10 fruit and vegetable gift following a $20 fruit and vegetable purchase||Short-term, including feasibility assessment||Store; Health organization 2|
|Fruit, vegetables, meat 3 and bottled water||$25 voucher for health assessment participation||Ongoing||Health organization|
|Water—chilled via a bubbler outside the store||Free||Ongoing||Store|
|Sugar sweetened carbonated beverages||19% increase||Ongoing||Store|
|Sugar sweetened carbonated beverages||$0.30 increase per 375 mL can and $1.00 per 1.25 L bottle||Ongoing||Store|
|Subsidy/price increase combination|
|Reduction on healthy foods and increase on unhealthy foods 1||n/a||Ongoing||Store|
|Reduction on artificially sweetened carbonated beverages and increase on sugar sweetened carbonated beverages||Various ranging from 6% to 22%, and in places a widening gap 4||Ongoing||Store; Stores and manufacturer|
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