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Article

Mushroom Poisoning—A 17 Year Retrospective Study at a Level I University Emergency Department in Switzerland

1
Department of Emergency Medicine, Inselspital, University Hospital Bern, University of Bern, 3010 Bern, Switzerland
2
National Poisons Information Centre, Tox Info Suisse, Associated Institute of the University of Zurich, 8032 Zurich, Switzerland
3
Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of General Internal Medicine, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, 3010 Bern, Switzerland
4
Institute of Pharmacology, University of Bern, 3010 Bern, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2855; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122855
Received: 5 October 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 14 December 2018
The consequences of mushroom poisoning range from mild, mostly gastrointestinal, disturbances to organ failure or even death. This retrospective study describes presentations related to mushroom poisoning at an emergency department in Bern (Switzerland) from January 2001 to October 2017. Gastrointestinal disturbances were reported in 86% of the 51 cases. The National Poisons Information Centre and mycologists were involved in 69% and 61% of the cases, respectively. Identification of the mushroom type/family was possible in 43% of the cases. The most common mushroom family was Boletaceae (n = 21) and the most common mushrooms Xerocomus chrysenteron (n = 7; four being part of a cluster), Clitocybe nebularis, Lepista nuda and Lactarius semisanguifluus (n = 5 each, four being part of a cluster). Poisonous mushrooms included Amanita phalloides (n = 3, all analytically confirmed), Boletus satanas (n = 3), Amanita muscaria (n = 2) and Amanita pantherina (n = 2). There were no fatalities and 80% of the patients were discharged within 24 h. Mushroom poisoning does not appear to be a common reason for emergency consultation and most presentations were of minor severity and related to edible species (e.g., due to incorrect processing). Nevertheless, poisonous mushrooms and severe complications were also recorded. Collaboration with a poison centre and/or mycologists is of great importance, especially in high risk cases. View Full-Text
Keywords: mushroom poisoning; mushroom toxicity; emergency department mushroom poisoning; mushroom toxicity; emergency department
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MDPI and ACS Style

Keller, S.A.; Klukowska-Rötzler, J.; Schenk-Jaeger, K.M.; Kupferschmidt, H.; Exadaktylos, A.K.; Lehmann, B.; Liakoni, E. Mushroom Poisoning—A 17 Year Retrospective Study at a Level I University Emergency Department in Switzerland. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2855. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122855

AMA Style

Keller SA, Klukowska-Rötzler J, Schenk-Jaeger KM, Kupferschmidt H, Exadaktylos AK, Lehmann B, Liakoni E. Mushroom Poisoning—A 17 Year Retrospective Study at a Level I University Emergency Department in Switzerland. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(12):2855. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122855

Chicago/Turabian Style

Keller, Sarah A., Jolanta Klukowska-Rötzler, Katharina M. Schenk-Jaeger, Hugo Kupferschmidt, Aristomenis K. Exadaktylos, Beat Lehmann, and Evangelia Liakoni. 2018. "Mushroom Poisoning—A 17 Year Retrospective Study at a Level I University Emergency Department in Switzerland" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15, no. 12: 2855. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122855

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