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Open AccessArticle

Defense Mechanisms of Two Pioneer Submerged Plants during Their Optimal Performance Period in the Bioaccumulation of Lead: A Comparative Study

Institute of Ecology and Environment, State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, College of Water Resource & Hydropower, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China
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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2844; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122844
Received: 17 November 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Improvement and Ecological Restoration)
Ceratophyllum demersum L. and Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle, two pioneer, submerged plants, effectively remove heavy metals from contaminated water. The present work evaluates the bioaccumulation and defense mechanisms of these plants in the accumulation of lead from contaminated water during their optimal performance period. C. demersum and H. verticillata were investigated after 14 days of exposure to various lead concentrations (5–80 μM). The lead accumulation in both C. demersum and H. verticillata increased with an increasing lead concentration, reaching maximum values of 2462.7 and 1792 mg kg−1 dw, respectively, at 80 μM. The biomass and protein content decreased significantly in C. demersum when exposed to lead. The biomass of H. verticillata exposed to lead had no significant difference from that of the controls, and the protein content increased for the 5–10 μM exposure groups. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities were much higher in C. demersum, suggesting considerable damage from lipid peroxidation and sensitivity to lead stress. Enzyme inhibition and inactivation were also observed in C. demersum at high lead concentrations (40–80 μM). The excellent growth status, low damage from lipid peroxidation, and high activity of catalase (CAT) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) observed in H. verticillata illustrate its better tolerance under the same lead stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ceratophyllum demersum L.; Hydrilla verticillate (L.f.) Royle; bioaccumulation; defense mechanism Ceratophyllum demersum L.; Hydrilla verticillate (L.f.) Royle; bioaccumulation; defense mechanism
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Li, D.; Zhang, L.; Chen, M.; He, X.; Li, J.; An, R. Defense Mechanisms of Two Pioneer Submerged Plants during Their Optimal Performance Period in the Bioaccumulation of Lead: A Comparative Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2844.

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