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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2683; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122683

Population Exposure to Ambient PM2.5 at the Subdistrict Level in China

1,* , 2,†
,
3,* and 4
1
School of Architecture and Hang Lung Center for Real Estate, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
3
Beijing Key Laboratory of Megaregions Sustainable Development Modelling and School of Urban Economics and Public Administration, Capital University of Economics and Business, Beijing 100070, China
4
Environmental Research Center, Duke Kunshan University, Kunshan 215316, China
The first two authors contribute equally to the paper.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 20 November 2018 / Accepted: 24 November 2018 / Published: 28 November 2018
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Abstract

Fine-particulate pollution is a major public health concern in China. Accurate assessment of the population exposed to PM2.5 requires high-resolution pollution and population information. This paper assesses China’s potential population exposure to PM2.5, maps its spatiotemporal variability, and simulates the effects of the recent air pollution control policy. We relate satellite-based Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) retrievals to ground-based PM2.5 observations. We employ block cokriging (BCK) to improve the spatial interpolation of PM2.5 distribution. We use the subdistrict level population data to estimate and map the potential population exposure to PM2.5 pollution in China at the subdistrict level, the smallest administrative unit with public demographic information. During 8 April 2013 and 7 April 2014, China’s population-weighted annual average PM2.5 concentration was nearly 7 times the annual average level suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO). About 1322 million people, or 98.6% of the total population, were exposed to PM2.5 at levels above WHO’s daily guideline for longer than half a year. If China can achieve its Action Plan on Prevention and Control of Air Pollution targets by 2017, the population exposed to PM2.5 above China’s daily standard for longer than half a year will be reduced by 85%. View Full-Text
Keywords: PM2.5; population exposure; MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) AOD; China PM2.5; population exposure; MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) AOD; China
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Long, Y.; Wang, J.; Wu, K.; Zhang, J. Population Exposure to Ambient PM2.5 at the Subdistrict Level in China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2683.

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