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Review

The Impact of Backpack Loads on School Children: A Critical Narrative Review

1
Bond Institute of Health and Sport, Bond University, Gold Coast, QLD 4229, Australia
2
School of Community Health, Charles Sturt University, Albury-Wodonga, NSW 2640, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2529; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112529
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 5 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
Background: Backpack loads of school students during school days have been suggested to range from 10% to as high as 25% of their body weight and may have a negative impact on their body. The aim of this review was to identify and review studies that have examined impacts of contemporary backpack loads on school children. Methods: A systematic search was conducted of the literature using key search terms. After relevant studies published in recent years were selected using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, the studies were critically appraised and relevant data were extracted and tabulated prior to conducting a critical narrative synthesis of findings. Results: Twenty-one studies were included, ranging in methodological quality from poor to good (critical appraisal scores 22% to 77%). Students carried on average over 15% of their own body weight, which caused biomechanical and physiological adaptations that could increase musculoskeletal injury risk, fatigue, redness, swelling and discomfort. Conclusion: Considering the limited methodological quality and variations in foci across studies, further research is needed to elucidate: (1) the loads students carry around on a school day in their school backpacks and; (2) the biomechanical, physiological and physical effects of load carriage on students. View Full-Text
Keywords: load carriage; children; school backpacks; configuration; impact load carriage; children; school backpacks; configuration; impact
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MDPI and ACS Style

Perrone, M.; Orr, R.; Hing, W.; Milne, N.; Pope, R. The Impact of Backpack Loads on School Children: A Critical Narrative Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2529. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112529

AMA Style

Perrone M, Orr R, Hing W, Milne N, Pope R. The Impact of Backpack Loads on School Children: A Critical Narrative Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(11):2529. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112529

Chicago/Turabian Style

Perrone, Michelle, Robin Orr, Wayne Hing, Nikki Milne, and Rodney Pope. 2018. "The Impact of Backpack Loads on School Children: A Critical Narrative Review" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15, no. 11: 2529. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112529

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