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Open AccessArticle

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease among Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Abha City, South Western Saudi Arabia

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Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 641, Abha 61421, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Epidemiology, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21511, Egypt
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Department of Community Medicine, College of Medicine Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt
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Department of Radiology, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 641, Abha 61421, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 641, Abha 61421, Saudi Arabia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2521; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112521
Received: 11 October 2018 / Revised: 5 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 11 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and the factors associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Abha City, Southwestern Saudi Arabia. Using a cross-sectional study design, a representative sample of 245 T2DM patients were recruited from all primary healthcare centers in Abha city. A detailed medical history as well as laboratory investigations were done. NAFLD was diagnosed using abdominal ultrasound examination. The overall prevalence of NAFLD was 72.8% (95% CI: 66.6%–78.1%). In a multivariable regression analysis, the risk of NAFLD was significantly higher among overweight T2DM patients (aOR = 6.112, 95% CI: 1.529–4.432), Obese (aOR = 10.455, 95% CI: 2.645–41.326), with high ALT of more than 12 IU/L (aOR = 2.335, 95% CI: 1.096–5.062), moderate diet-compliant patients (aOR = 2.413, 95% CI: 1.003–5.805) and poor diet-compliant patients (aOR = 6.562, 95% CI: 2.056–20.967). On the other hand, high HDL (high density cholesterol) (in mg/dL) was a protective factor for NAFLD (aOR = 0.044, 95% CI: 0.005–0.365). It was concluded that NAFLD is a common association of T2DM. Increasing BMI (Body mass index), lower HDL level, and poor dietary control are significant factors associated with NAFLD among T2DM patients. Health education to improve dietary control and avoid excessive weight gain, testing for NAFLD among diabetic patients, especially those with abnormal BMI and HDL, are recommended for early detection and to ensure optimal levels of HDL. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; type-2 diabetes mellitus; Saudi Arabia non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; type-2 diabetes mellitus; Saudi Arabia
MDPI and ACS Style

Alsabaani, A.A.; Mahfouz, A.A.; Awadalla, N.J.; Musa, M.J.; Al Humayed, S.M. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease among Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Abha City, South Western Saudi Arabia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2521.

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