Next Article in Journal
Economic Crisis and Amenable Mortality in Spain
Next Article in Special Issue
Economic Evaluation of Environmental Interventions: Reflections on Methodological Challenges and Developments
Previous Article in Journal
Disparities in Unintentional Occupational Injury Mortality between High-Income Countries and Low- and Middle-Income Countries: 1990–2016
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Trade-Off between Optimizing Flight Patterns and Human Health: A Case Study of Aircraft Noise in Queens, NY, USA
Article

Haze Attitudes and the Willingness to Pay for Haze Improvement: Evidence from Four Cities in Shandong Province, China

1
Center for Health Economics Experiment and Public Policy, School of Public Health, Shandong University, No. 44 Wenhuaxi Road, Lixia, District, Jinan 250012, China
2
Tianjin Hongqiao District Health and Family Planning Commission, 202 Qinjian Road, Hongqiao 300131, China
3
School of Management, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 300193, China
4
School of Economics and School of Management, Tianjin Normal University, West Bin Shui Avenue, Tianjin 300074, China
5
TOP Education Institute, 1 Central Avenue Australian Technology Park, Eveleigh Sydney, NSW 2015, Australia
6
Newcastle Business School, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2297; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102297
Received: 15 August 2018 / Revised: 3 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic Evaluation of Environmental Policies and Interventions)
Background: Given the health and welfare impacts of haze, haze reduction governance challenges Chinese policy-makers. Surprisingly, there have been no studies of the differences in the public’s willingness to pay (WTP) for haze governance within a province. Yet haze reduction policies are implemented at the provincial level. Based on the contingent valuation method, data on WTP for haze governance across four industrial cities in Shandong province were collected using a questionnaire survey. Method: A combination of stratified sampling and non-probability sampling methods were used, yielding a valid sample of 1006 respondents. The Heckman sample selection model was used to analyze factors determining WTP and WTP amount. Results: 53% of respondents were unwilling to pay for haze reduction, while less than 1% of these respondents were satisfied with Shandong’s air quality. About half (47%) of the respondents were willing to pay, on average, US$14.14 per household per year for haze governance. We found that there were significant inter-city differences in the WTP and WTP amounts: those with a higher income, education, haze knowledge, and haze concern were WTP; age, marital status, and subjective indicators displayed a negative relationship with WTP amount. About two thirds of the non-payers, and those with poor environmental knowledge, argued that air quality improvement was mainly the responsibility of governments (39.3%) and polluters (25.6%), instead of ordinary citizens. Further, 27% of non-payers said that their income was too low to contribute to a pollution tax and 6.3% claimed that they did not believe the funds would be used effectively for environmental conservation. Conclusions: City-specific differences in WTP may caution against “one size fits all” policies. The study indicates that the government may need to target policies to specific cities and the characteristics of residents in those cities by age, education, and income groups and residents’ subjective evaluation of the government and the haze problem and those responsible for pollution. View Full-Text
Keywords: contingent valuation method; willingness to pay; haze governance; Shandong province contingent valuation method; willingness to pay; haze governance; Shandong province
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, F.; Ding, L.; Liu, C.; Xu, L.; Nicholas, S.; Wang, J. Haze Attitudes and the Willingness to Pay for Haze Improvement: Evidence from Four Cities in Shandong Province, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2297. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102297

AMA Style

Yang F, Ding L, Liu C, Xu L, Nicholas S, Wang J. Haze Attitudes and the Willingness to Pay for Haze Improvement: Evidence from Four Cities in Shandong Province, China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(10):2297. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102297

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yang, Fan, Ling Ding, Cai Liu, Lizheng Xu, Stephen Nicholas, and Jian Wang. 2018. "Haze Attitudes and the Willingness to Pay for Haze Improvement: Evidence from Four Cities in Shandong Province, China" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15, no. 10: 2297. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102297

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop