Next Article in Journal
Impacts of Type D Personality and Depression, Alone and in Combination, on Medication Non-Adherence Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Next Article in Special Issue
Development of a Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment Using a Public Health Lens to Determine Local Health Vulnerabilities: An Ontario Health Unit Experience
Previous Article in Journal
A Review of the Processes, Parameters, and Optimization of Anaerobic Digestion
Previous Article in Special Issue
Establishing Heat Alert Thresholds for the Varied Climatic Regions of British Columbia, Canada
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2225; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102225

Distribution of Ixodes scapularis in Northwestern Ontario: Results from Active and Passive Surveillance Activities in the Northwestern Health Unit Catchment Area

1
Northwestern Health Unit, Kenora, ON P9N 2K4, Canada
2
Canadian Public Health Service, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K9, Canada
3
Zoonotic Diseases and Special Pathogens, National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB R3E 3R2, Canada
4
Enteric, Zoonotic and Vector-Borne Diseases, Communicable Diseases, Emergency Preparedness and Response, Public Health Ontario, Toronto, ON M5G 1V2, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 September 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 6 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Health Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessments)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1501 KB, uploaded 11 October 2018]   |  

Abstract

The range of Ixodes scapularis is expanding in Ontario, increasing the risk of Lyme disease. As an effective public health response requires accurate information on disease distribution and areas of risk, this study aims to establish the geographic distribution of I. scapularis and its associated pathogen, B. burgdorferi, in northwestern Ontario. We assessed five years of active and passive tick surveillance data in northwestern Ontario. Between 2013 and 2017, 251 I. scapularis were submitted through passive surveillance. The submission rate increased over time, and the proportion infected with B. burgdorferi was 13.5%. Active tick surveillance from 2014 to 2016 found few I. scapularis specimens. In 2017, 102 I. scapularis were found in 10 locations around the city of Kenora; 60% were infected with B. burgdorferi, eight tested positive for A. phagocytophilum, and one for POWV. I. scapularis ticks were found in 14 locations within the Northwestern Health Unit area, with seven locations containing B. burgdorferi-positive ticks. We found abundant I. scapularis populations in the southern portion of northwestern Ontario and northward expansion is expected. It is recommended that I. scapularis populations continue to be monitored and mitigation strategies should be established for rural northern communities. View Full-Text
Keywords: surveillance; Ixodes scapularis; Borrelia burgdorferi; Lyme disease; northwestern Ontario surveillance; Ixodes scapularis; Borrelia burgdorferi; Lyme disease; northwestern Ontario
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Schillberg, E.; Lunny, D.; Lindsay, L.R.; Nelder, M.P.; Russell, C.; Mackie, M.; Coats, D.; Berry, A.; Young Hoon, K.N. Distribution of Ixodes scapularis in Northwestern Ontario: Results from Active and Passive Surveillance Activities in the Northwestern Health Unit Catchment Area. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2225.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top