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Comment published on 31 May 2019, see Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 1939.
Article

Distribution of Ixodes scapularis in Northwestern Ontario: Results from Active and Passive Surveillance Activities in the Northwestern Health Unit Catchment Area

1
Northwestern Health Unit, Kenora, ON P9N 2K4, Canada
2
Canadian Public Health Service, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K9, Canada
3
Zoonotic Diseases and Special Pathogens, National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB R3E 3R2, Canada
4
Enteric, Zoonotic and Vector-Borne Diseases, Communicable Diseases, Emergency Preparedness and Response, Public Health Ontario, Toronto, ON M5G 1V2, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2225; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102225
Received: 6 September 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 6 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Health Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessments)
The range of Ixodes scapularis is expanding in Ontario, increasing the risk of Lyme disease. As an effective public health response requires accurate information on disease distribution and areas of risk, this study aims to establish the geographic distribution of I. scapularis and its associated pathogen, B. burgdorferi, in northwestern Ontario. We assessed five years of active and passive tick surveillance data in northwestern Ontario. Between 2013 and 2017, 251 I. scapularis were submitted through passive surveillance. The submission rate increased over time, and the proportion infected with B. burgdorferi was 13.5%. Active tick surveillance from 2014 to 2016 found few I. scapularis specimens. In 2017, 102 I. scapularis were found in 10 locations around the city of Kenora; 60% were infected with B. burgdorferi, eight tested positive for A. phagocytophilum, and one for POWV. I. scapularis ticks were found in 14 locations within the Northwestern Health Unit area, with seven locations containing B. burgdorferi-positive ticks. We found abundant I. scapularis populations in the southern portion of northwestern Ontario and northward expansion is expected. It is recommended that I. scapularis populations continue to be monitored and mitigation strategies should be established for rural northern communities. View Full-Text
Keywords: surveillance; Ixodes scapularis; Borrelia burgdorferi; Lyme disease; northwestern Ontario surveillance; Ixodes scapularis; Borrelia burgdorferi; Lyme disease; northwestern Ontario
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schillberg, E.; Lunny, D.; Lindsay, L.R.; Nelder, M.P.; Russell, C.; Mackie, M.; Coats, D.; Berry, A.; Young Hoon, K.N. Distribution of Ixodes scapularis in Northwestern Ontario: Results from Active and Passive Surveillance Activities in the Northwestern Health Unit Catchment Area. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2225. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102225

AMA Style

Schillberg E, Lunny D, Lindsay LR, Nelder MP, Russell C, Mackie M, Coats D, Berry A, Young Hoon KN. Distribution of Ixodes scapularis in Northwestern Ontario: Results from Active and Passive Surveillance Activities in the Northwestern Health Unit Catchment Area. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(10):2225. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102225

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schillberg, Erin, Dorian Lunny, L. R. Lindsay, Mark P. Nelder, Curtis Russell, Mike Mackie, Dave Coats, Alex Berry, and Kit N. Young Hoon 2018. "Distribution of Ixodes scapularis in Northwestern Ontario: Results from Active and Passive Surveillance Activities in the Northwestern Health Unit Catchment Area" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15, no. 10: 2225. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102225

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