Next Article in Journal
Exploring the Emerging Evolution Trends of Urban Resilience Research by Scientometric Analysis
Next Article in Special Issue
Window View and the Brain: Effects of Floor Level and Green Cover on the Alpha and Beta Rhythms in a Passive Exposure EEG Experiment
Previous Article in Journal
A Novel Sampling Method to Measure Socioeconomic Drivers of Aedes albopictus Distribution in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina
Previous Article in Special Issue
Detailed Assessment of the Spatial Distribution of Urban Parks According to Day and Travel Mode Based on Web Mapping API: A Case Study of Main Parks in Wuhan
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessPerspective
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2180;

Modern Compact Cities: How Much Greenery Do We Need?

Department of Landscape Design and Sustainable Ecosystems, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, RUDN University, 117198 Moscow, Russia
Polo Centre of Sustainability, 18100 Imperia, Italy
Faculty of Economics, University of Gdansk, 81-824 Sopot, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 August 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 28 September 2018 / Published: 5 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greener Cities and Healthier Lives in the Asia Pacific)
PDF [5530 KB, uploaded 8 October 2018]


The modern compact city is identified as a high-density and mixed-use pattern. Its features are believed to contribute to a form of functional urban design that supports sustainability and, restresses, the importance of ecosystem services. Urban green space (UGS) plays a vital role in the design and impact on how compact cities have developed and triggered a scientific discord on the amount of greenery individuals require and to what extent contemporary approaches address the question. Research points to at least 9 m2 of green space per individual with an ideal UGS value of 50 m2 per capita. An examination on the perception, use, quality, accessibility and health risks of urban green and blue spaces is explored, alongside the availability of novel UGS and greenery-related approaches that investigate compact city design and planning for health and wellbeing. The amount of ‘green’ and relating UGS availability in cities indicates vital knowledge modern compact cities must consider. View Full-Text
Keywords: garden cities; ecosystem services; healing garden design; biophilic urbanism; edible green infrastructure garden cities; ecosystem services; healing garden design; biophilic urbanism; edible green infrastructure

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Russo, A.; Cirella, G.T. Modern Compact Cities: How Much Greenery Do We Need? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2180.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top