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Article

Soil Contamination by a Lead Smelter in Brazil in the View of the Local Residents

Health, Environment, and Work Program, School of Medicine, Federal University of Bahia. Largo do Terreiro de Jesus, s/n, Centro Histórico, Salvador, Bahia 40026-010, Brazil
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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2166; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102166
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 24 September 2018 / Accepted: 27 September 2018 / Published: 2 October 2018
A primary lead smelter operated in Santo Amaro City in Brazil from 1960 to 1993, leaving approximately 500,000 tons of industrial dross containing 2–3% of lead and other toxic elements that contaminated the industry grounds and the urban environment. This study aimed to present the local residents’ perception towards soil contamination by the smelter. In a cross-sectional study, 208 residents from randomly selected households were interviewed about dross hazards and proposals for its management. A city map depicts the distribution and concentration of lead, cadmium, arsenic, zinc, nickel, and antimony, measured in the soil of the 39 households with visible smelter dross. Only one site complies with the soil quality reference values; 27 (69.2%) call for preventive measures, and 11 (28.2%) require intervention. The smelter dross continues widely spread over the city. Thirty (76.9%) out of the 39 residents were able to recognize the smelter dross on household surroundings. However, this ability was not associated with the concentrations of toxic elements in the soil of their residences and surroundings. The smelter and the local Prefecture were most frequently held liable for taking soil cleanup actions. The most frequently (38.0%) cited solution for managing the dross found in the households was “to provide the residents with information about health risks related to the dross”. View Full-Text
Keywords: soil pollution; lead; public perception of science; environmental hazards; solid waste; toxic wastes soil pollution; lead; public perception of science; environmental hazards; solid waste; toxic wastes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Carvalho, F.M.; Tavares, T.M.; Lins, L. Soil Contamination by a Lead Smelter in Brazil in the View of the Local Residents. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2166. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102166

AMA Style

Carvalho FM, Tavares TM, Lins L. Soil Contamination by a Lead Smelter in Brazil in the View of the Local Residents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(10):2166. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102166

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carvalho, Fernando M.; Tavares, Tania M.; Lins, Liliane. 2018. "Soil Contamination by a Lead Smelter in Brazil in the View of the Local Residents" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 15, no. 10: 2166. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102166

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