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Characteristics of Refractive Errors in a Population of Adults in the Central Region of Poland

Provisus Eye Clinic, 112 Redzinska str., 42-209 Czestochowa, Poland
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Rehabilitation, Medical University of Lodz, 113 Zeromskiego str., 90-549 Lodz, Poland
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Warmia and Mazury, 30 Warszawska str., 10-082 Olsztyn, Poland
Department of Statistics, State University of Applied Science in Konin, 1 Przyjazni str., 65-510 Konin, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 90;
Received: 18 November 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 6 January 2018 / Published: 8 January 2018
Background: To investigate the distribution of refractive errors and their characteristics in older adults from a Polish population. Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional study. A total of 1107 men and women were interviewed and underwent detailed ophthalmic examinations, 998 subjects underwent refraction. Myopia was defined as spherical equivalent (SER) refraction ≤−0.5 dioptres (D) and hyperopia was defined as SER ≥+0.5 dioptres (D). Results: Among those who were refracted the distribution of myopia and hyperopia was 24.1% (95% CI 21.4–26.7) and 37.5% (95% CI 34.5–40.5), respectively. Myopia decreased from 28.7% in subjects aged 35–59 years to 19.3% in those aged 60 years or older and hyperopia increased from 21.8% at 35–59 years of age to 53.3% in subjects aged ≥60 years. Multiple regression analysis showed decreasing age (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96–1.00), female gender (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.18–2.95) and presence of cataract (OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.24–4.63) were independent risk factors associated with myopia. Conclusions: The distribution of refractive errors found in our study is similar to those reported in other Caucasian populations and differs from Asian populations. Myopia was positively associated with younger age, female gender and presence of cataract. View Full-Text
Keywords: myopia; hyperopia; anisometropia myopia; hyperopia; anisometropia
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Nowak, M.S.; Jurowski, P.; Grzybowski, A.; Smigielski, J. Characteristics of Refractive Errors in a Population of Adults in the Central Region of Poland. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 90.

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