Next Article in Journal
Annual Direct Medical Costs of Diabetic Foot Disease in Brazil: A Cost of Illness Study
Previous Article in Journal
Climate Change Risk Perception in Taiwan: Correlation with Individual and Societal Factors
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 90;

Characteristics of Refractive Errors in a Population of Adults in the Central Region of Poland

Provisus Eye Clinic, 112 Redzinska str., 42-209 Czestochowa, Poland
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Rehabilitation, Medical University of Lodz, 113 Zeromskiego str., 90-549 Lodz, Poland
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Warmia and Mazury, 30 Warszawska str., 10-082 Olsztyn, Poland
Department of Statistics, State University of Applied Science in Konin, 1 Przyjazni str., 65-510 Konin, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 November 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 6 January 2018 / Published: 8 January 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [627 KB, uploaded 8 January 2018]   |  


Background: To investigate the distribution of refractive errors and their characteristics in older adults from a Polish population. Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional study. A total of 1107 men and women were interviewed and underwent detailed ophthalmic examinations, 998 subjects underwent refraction. Myopia was defined as spherical equivalent (SER) refraction ≤−0.5 dioptres (D) and hyperopia was defined as SER ≥+0.5 dioptres (D). Results: Among those who were refracted the distribution of myopia and hyperopia was 24.1% (95% CI 21.4–26.7) and 37.5% (95% CI 34.5–40.5), respectively. Myopia decreased from 28.7% in subjects aged 35–59 years to 19.3% in those aged 60 years or older and hyperopia increased from 21.8% at 35–59 years of age to 53.3% in subjects aged ≥60 years. Multiple regression analysis showed decreasing age (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96–1.00), female gender (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.18–2.95) and presence of cataract (OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.24–4.63) were independent risk factors associated with myopia. Conclusions: The distribution of refractive errors found in our study is similar to those reported in other Caucasian populations and differs from Asian populations. Myopia was positively associated with younger age, female gender and presence of cataract. View Full-Text
Keywords: myopia; hyperopia; anisometropia myopia; hyperopia; anisometropia

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Nowak, M.S.; Jurowski, P.; Grzybowski, A.; Smigielski, J. Characteristics of Refractive Errors in a Population of Adults in the Central Region of Poland. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 90.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top