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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010125

Contamination and Risk Assessment of Estrogens in Livestock Manure: A Case Study in Jiangsu Province, China

1
Institute of Organic Contaminant Control and Soil Remediation, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
2
Collaborative Innovation Center of Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control (AEMPC), Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 25 November 2017 / Accepted: 27 November 2017 / Published: 12 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Abstract

This study investigated the occurrence and contamination risk of estrogens in livestock manure in Jiangsu Province, China. Four estrogens—estriol (E3), 17β-estradiol (17β-E2), bisphenol A (BPA), and 17α-ethinyloestradiol (EE2)—were detected in livestock manure from hens, ducks, swine, and cows. The respective mean concentrations of each estrogen found in these manures were 289.8, 334.1, 330.3, and 33.7 μg/kg for E3; 38.6, 10.9, 52.9, and 38.8 μg/kg for 17β-E2; 63.6, 48.7, 51.9, and 11.7 μg/kg for BPA; and 14.3, 11.3, 25.1, and 21.8 μg/kg for EE2. Estrogens were most frequently detected at high concentrations in the manure of finishing pigs, followed by the manure of growing pigs and piglets. Estrogens can be partially degraded after banking up for seven days; yet, great quantities of estrogens remain in livestock manure. The total estradiol equivalent quantity (EEQt) estimated to be present in aquatic environments but originating from livestock waste was 10.5 ng/L, which was greater than the hazard baseline value (1 ng/L) and also higher than the proposed lowest observable effect concentration (10 ng/L) of E2 in aquatic environments. The results of our study demonstrate that livestock waste is an important source of estrogens, which may potentially affect the hormonal metabolism of aquatic organisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: estradiol equivalent quantity; estrogen; livestock manure; risk assessment; Jiangsu Province; bank up estradiol equivalent quantity; estrogen; livestock manure; risk assessment; Jiangsu Province; bank up
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Xu, P.; Zhou, X.; Xu, D.; Xiang, Y.; Ling, W.; Chen, M. Contamination and Risk Assessment of Estrogens in Livestock Manure: A Case Study in Jiangsu Province, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 125.

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