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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010012

Differences between Dual Users and Switchers Center around Vaping Behavior and Its Experiences Rather than Beliefs and Attitudes

1
Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, KU Leuven—University Leuven, Tiensestraat 102, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
2
Applied Psychology Unit, Thomas More University of Applied Sciences, Molenstraat 8, 2018 Antwerp, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 November 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 21 December 2017 / Published: 23 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Cigarette Use and Public Health)
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Abstract

(1) Background: Many smokers completely switch to vaping (switchers), whereas others use e-cigarettes (e-cigs) alongside tobacco cigarettes (dual users). To the extent that dual users substantially lower the number of cigarettes, they will reduce health risks from smoking. However, from a medical point of view, exclusive vaping is preferable to dual use; (2) Methods: Using an online questionnaire we assessed behavioral, cognitive and attitudinal aspects of e-cig use in smoking and ex-smoking vapers; (3) Results: Our sample consisted of 19% dual users and 81% switchers. Before e-cig initiation, both groups smoked on average 22 cigarettes per day (CPD). After e-cig initiation, dual users decreased tobacco consumption by 82% and were low-to-moderately cigarette dependent. Both groups had been vaping for on average 22 months, were highly e-cig dependent, used state-of-the-art e-cigs, nicotine concentrations of 4–8 mg/mL and often flavors other than tobacco. Dual users used substantially less e-liquid per week than switchers but reported a similar number of puffs/day, experienced less e-cig efficacy, more practical problems, more negative and less positive consequences, and endorsed smoking reduction (rather than quitting) as a more important reason to start vaping. For both groups, e-cig risk perception was low and little stigmatization was experienced. Dual users preferred tobacco cigarettes in stressful situations and when rapid nicotine uptake is required. E-cigs were preferred where cigarettes are prohibited and to reduce second-hand smoke; (4) Conclusions: Differences between dual users and switchers center around variables proximal to the vaping behavior and its experienced effects rather than hinging on more general vaping-related beliefs and attitudes. View Full-Text
Keywords: electronic cigarettes; dual use; tobacco harm reduction electronic cigarettes; dual use; tobacco harm reduction
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Adriaens, K.; Van Gucht, D.; Baeyens, F. Differences between Dual Users and Switchers Center around Vaping Behavior and Its Experiences Rather than Beliefs and Attitudes. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 12.

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