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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1070; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14091070

Phylogenetic Analysis and Antimicrobial Profiles of Cultured Emerging Opportunistic Pathogens (Phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria) Identified in Hot Springs

1
Department of Biotechnology, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein, 2094 Johannesburg, South Africa
2
AMBIO Environmental Management, Department of Biotechnology, Vaal University of Technology, Andries Potgieter Blvd, Private Bag X021, Vanderbijlpark 1911, South Africa
3
Water Research Commission, Private Bag X03 Gezina, Pretoria 0031, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Infectious Disease (EID) Research, Management and Response)
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Abstract

Hot spring water may harbour emerging waterborne opportunistic pathogens that can cause infections in humans. We have investigated the diversity and antimicrobial resistance of culturable emerging and opportunistic bacterial pathogens, in water and sediment of hot springs located in Limpopo, South Africa. Aerobic bacteria were cultured and identified using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene sequencing. The presence of Legionella spp. was investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Isolates were tested for resistance to ten antibiotics representing six different classes: β-lactam (carbenicillin), aminoglycosides (gentamycin, kanamycin, streptomycin), tetracycline, amphenicols (chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone), sulphonamides (co-trimoxazole) and quinolones (nalidixic acid, norfloxacin). Gram-positive Kocuria sp. and Arthrobacter sp. and gram-negative Cupriavidus sp., Ralstonia sp., Cronobacter sp., Tepidimonas sp., Hafnia sp. and Sphingomonas sp. were isolated, all recognised as emerging food-borne pathogens. Legionella spp. was not detected throughout the study. Isolates of Kocuria, Arthrobacter and Hafnia and an unknown species of the class Gammaproteobacteria were resistant to two antibiotics in different combinations of carbenicillin, ceftriaxone, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol. Cronobacter sp. was sensitive to all ten antibiotics. This study suggests that hot springs are potential reservoirs for emerging opportunistic pathogens, including multiple antibiotic resistant strains, and highlights the presence of unknown populations of emerging and potential waterborne opportunistic pathogens in the environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: emerging opportunistic pathogens; hot springs; antibiotic resistance; phylogenetic analysis; Actinobacteria; Proteobacteria emerging opportunistic pathogens; hot springs; antibiotic resistance; phylogenetic analysis; Actinobacteria; Proteobacteria
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Jardine, J.L.; Abia, A.L.K.; Mavumengwana, V.; Ubomba-Jaswa, E. Phylogenetic Analysis and Antimicrobial Profiles of Cultured Emerging Opportunistic Pathogens (Phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria) Identified in Hot Springs. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1070.

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