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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(8), 920; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14080920

Impact of Orientation on the Vitamin D Weighted Exposure of a Human in an Urban Environment

Institute of Meteorology and Climatology, Leibniz Universität Hannover, 30419 Hannover, Germany
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Academic Editor: Hanns Moshammer
Received: 19 June 2017 / Revised: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 16 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Abstract

The vitamin D3-weighted UV exposure of a human with vertical posture was calculated for urban locations to investigate the impact of orientation and obstructions on the exposure. Human exposure was calculated by using the 3D geometry of a human and integrating the radiance, i.e., the radiant energy from the direct solar beam and the diffuse sky radiation from different incident and azimuth angles. Obstructions of the sky are derived from hemispherical images, which are recorded by a digital camera with a fisheye lens. Due to the low reflectivity of most surfaces in the UV range, the radiance from obstructed sky regions was neglected. For spring equinox (21 March), the exposure of a human model with winter clothing in an environment where obstructions cover 40% of the sky varies by up to 25%, depending on the orientation of the human model to the sun. The calculation of the accumulated vitamin D3-weighted exposure of a human with winter clothing walking during lunch break shows that human exposure is reduced by the obstruction of buildings and vegetation by 40%. View Full-Text
Keywords: UV radiation; human exposure; vitamin D; urban environment; hemispherical sky images; radiance UV radiation; human exposure; vitamin D; urban environment; hemispherical sky images; radiance
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Schrempf, M.; Thuns, N.; Lange, K.; Seckmeyer, G. Impact of Orientation on the Vitamin D Weighted Exposure of a Human in an Urban Environment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 920.

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