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Levels and Distribution of Pollutants in the Waters of an Aquatic Ecosystem in Northern Mexico

Sitio Experimental la Campana, CIRNOC, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP), Km. 33.3 Carretera Chihuahua-Ojinaga. Aldama, Chihuahua C.P. 32910, Mexico
Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Campus Universitario #2, Circuito Universitario, Chihuahua, Chihuahua C.P. 31125, Mexico
Facultad de Zootecnia y Ecología, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Periférico. R. Almada, km. 1. Chihuahua, Chihuahua C.P. 31453, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(5), 456;
Received: 25 February 2017 / Revised: 8 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 25 April 2017
PDF [1247 KB, uploaded 25 April 2017]


The availability of good quality water resources is essential to ensure healthy crops and livestock. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of pollution in Bustillos Lagoon in northern Mexico. Physical-chemical parameters like sodium, chloride, sulfate, electrical conductivity, nitrates, and the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) were analyzed to determine the water quality available in the lagoon. Although DDT has been banned in several countries, it is still used for agricultural purposes in Mexico and its presence in this area had not been analyzed previously. Bustillos Lagoon was divided into three zones for the evaluation: (1) industrial; (2) communal lands; and (3) agricultural. The highest concentrations of sodium (2360 mg/L) and SAR (41 meq/L) reported in the industrial zone are values exceeding the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) irrigation water quality guidelines. DDT and its metabolites were detected in all of the 21 sites analyzed, in the agricultural zone ∑DDTs = 2804 ng/mL, this level is much higher than those reported for other water bodies in Mexico and around the world where DDT has been used heavily. The water in the communal zone is the least contaminated, but can only be recommended for irrigation of plants with high stress tolerance and not for crops. View Full-Text
Keywords: DDT; agriculture; pesticides; water; sodium adsorption ratio (SAR); wastewater; water pollution DDT; agriculture; pesticides; water; sodium adsorption ratio (SAR); wastewater; water pollution

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Ochoa-Rivero, J.M.; Reyes-Fierro, A.V.; Peralta-Pérez, M.D.R.; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, F.J.; Ballinas-Casarrubias, L.; Salmerón, I.; Rubio-Arias, H.; Rocha-Gutiérrez, B.A. Levels and Distribution of Pollutants in the Waters of an Aquatic Ecosystem in Northern Mexico. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 456.

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