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Open AccessArticle

Smoke-Free Laws and Hazardous Drinking: A Cross-Sectional Study among U.S. Adults

Department of Population Health, School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY 10016, USA
Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
School of Social Sciences, Humanities & Arts, University of California, Merced, CA 95343, USA
Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA 94612, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thomas Greenfield
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 412;
Received: 18 January 2017 / Revised: 21 March 2017 / Accepted: 11 April 2017 / Published: 13 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Health Behavior and Public Health)
Tobacco and alcohol use are strongly associated. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship of smoke-free law coverage and smoke-free bar law coverage with hazardous drinking behaviors among a representative sample of U.S. adult drinkers (n = 17,057). We merged 2009 National Health Interview Survey data, American Nonsmokers’ Rights Foundation U.S. Tobacco Control Laws Database, and Census Population Estimates. Hazardous drinking outcomes included heavy drinking (>14 drinks/week for men; >7 drinks/week for women) and binge drinking (≥5 drinks on one or more days during past year). Chi-square tests compared hazardous drinking by sociodemographic factors. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine if smoke-free law and bar law coverages were associated with hazardous drinking, controlling for sociodemographics and smoking status. Subset analyses were conducted among drinkers who also smoked (n = 4074) to assess the association between law coverages and hazardous drinking. Among all drinkers, smoke-free law coverage was not associated with heavy drinking (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.99–1.50) or binge drinking (AOR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.93–1.26). Smoke-free bar law coverage was also found to be unrelated to hazardous drinking. Similar results were found among those drinkers who smoked. Findings suggest that smoke-free laws and bar laws are not associated with elevated risk for alcohol-related health issues. View Full-Text
Keywords: smoking; alcohol; hazardous drinking; smoke-free law smoking; alcohol; hazardous drinking; smoke-free law
MDPI and ACS Style

Jiang, N.; Gonzalez, M.; Ling, P.M.; Young-Wolff, K.C.; Glantz, S.A. Smoke-Free Laws and Hazardous Drinking: A Cross-Sectional Study among U.S. Adults. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 412.

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