Next Article in Journal
Enabling Factors for Sustaining Open Defecation-Free Communities in Rural Indonesia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Next Article in Special Issue
Evaluation of Behavior Change Communication Campaigns to Promote Modern Cookstove Purchase and Use in Lower Middle Income Countries
Previous Article in Journal
Non-Linear Relationship between Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions in China: An Empirical Study Based on Panel Smooth Transition Regression Models
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1571; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121571

Airborne or Fomite Transmission for Norovirus? A Case Study Revisited

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
2
Clinical Microbiology, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
3
Infection, Immunity, Inflammation, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 October 2017 / Revised: 10 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 14 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Hygiene)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1621 KB, uploaded 15 December 2017]   |  

Abstract

Norovirus infection, a highly prevalent condition associated with a high rate of morbidity, comprises a significant health issue. Although norovirus transmission mainly occurs via the fecal-oral and vomit-oral routes, airborne transmission has been proposed in recent decades. This paper re-examines a previously described norovirus outbreak in a hotel restaurant wherein airborne transmission was originally inferred. Specifically, the original evidence that suggested airborne transmission was re-analyzed by exploring an alternative hypothesis: could this outbreak instead have occurred via fomite transmission? This re-analysis was based on whether fomite transmission could have yielded similar attack rate distribution patterns. Seven representative serving pathways used by waiters were considered, and the infection risk distributions of the alternative fomite transmission routes were predicted using a multi-agent model. These distributions were compared to the reported attack rate distribution in the original study using a least square methods approach. The results show that with some reasonable assumptions of human behavior patterns and parameter values, the attack rate distribution corresponded well with that of the infection risk via the fomite route. This finding offers an alternative interpretation of the transmission routes that underlay this particular norovirus outbreak and an important consideration in the development of infection control guidelines and the investigation of similar norovirus outbreaks in future. View Full-Text
Keywords: norovirus; multi-agent simulation; fomite; airborne; outbreak analyses norovirus; multi-agent simulation; fomite; airborne; outbreak analyses
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Xiao, S.; Tang, J.W.; Li, Y. Airborne or Fomite Transmission for Norovirus? A Case Study Revisited. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1571.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top