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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1552; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121552

Same Abbreviated Injury Scale Values May Be Associated with Different Risks to Mortality in Trauma Patients: A Cross-Sectional Retrospective Study Based on the Trauma Registry System in a Level I Trauma Center

1
Department of Neurosurgery, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 88301, Taiwan
2
Department of Anesthesiology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 88301, Taiwan
3
Department of Plastic Surgery, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 88301, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 December 2017 / Published: 11 December 2017
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Abstract

The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) measures injury severity of a trauma patient with a numeric method for ranking anatomy-based specific injuries. The summation of the squares of the three most severe injuries in the AIS of six predefined body regions comprises the Injury Severity Score (ISS). It assumes that the mortality of a given AIS value is similar across all body regions. However, such an assumption is less explored in the literature. In this study, we aimed to compare the mortality rates of the patients with the same AIS value in different injured body regions in a level I trauma center. Hospitalized adult trauma patients with isolated serious to critical injury (AIS of 3 to 5) between 1 January 2009, and 31 December 2016, from the Trauma Registry System in a level I trauma center were grouped according to the injured body regions (including, the head/neck, thorax, abdomen, or extremities) and were exclusively compared according to their AIS stratum. Categorical data were compared using the two-sided Fisher exact or Pearson chi-square tests. ANOVA with Games-Howell post hoc test was performed to assess the differences in continuous data of the patients with injury in different body regions. The primary outcome of the study was in-hospital mortality. The adjusted odds ratios (AORs) were estimated using a stepwise selection of a multivariable regression model adjusted by controlling the confounding variables such as sex, age, comorbidities, and ISS. Survival curves were estimated with the Kaplan–Meier approach with a corresponding log-rank test. The patients with AIS of 5 for abdomen injury and those with AIS of 3 for extremity injury had a significantly lower odds of adjusted mortality (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01–0.39, p = 0.004 and AOR 0.3, 95% CI 0.15–0.51, p < 0.001, respectively) than that of the patients with head/neck injury. However, the patients with AIS of 4 for extremity injury demonstrated significantly higher odds of adjusted mortality (AOR 8.4, 95% CI 2.84–25.07, p < 0.001) than the patients with head/neck injury. This study found that the risks to mortality in the patients with a given AIS value of serious to critical injury in different injured body regions were not the same, even after controlling for confounding variables such as sex, age, comorbidities, and ISS. View Full-Text
Keywords: injury severity; mortality; trauma; Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS); Injury Severity Score (ISS) injury severity; mortality; trauma; Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS); Injury Severity Score (ISS)
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Rau, C.-S.; Wu, S.-C.; Kuo, P.-J.; Chen, Y.-C.; Chien, P.-C.; Hsieh, H.-Y.; Hsieh, C.-H. Same Abbreviated Injury Scale Values May Be Associated with Different Risks to Mortality in Trauma Patients: A Cross-Sectional Retrospective Study Based on the Trauma Registry System in a Level I Trauma Center. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1552.

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