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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1437; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121437

Dietary Intake of Cadmium, Lead and Mercury and Its Association with Bone Health in Healthy Premenopausal Women

Metabolic Bone Diseases Research Group, Nursing Department, University of Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain
Both authors contributed equally to this work.
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Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 28 October 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Studies on Heavy Metals and Health)
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Abstract

The bone is one of the relevant target organs of heavy metals, and heavy metal toxicity is associated with several degenerative processes, such osteoporosis and bone mineral alterations, that could lead to fractures. We aimed to study a presumed relationship between bone density, evaluated by quantitative bone ultrasound (QUS), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and the dietary intake of cadmium, lead and mercury in healthy premenopausal women. A total of 158 healthy, non-smoking, premenopausal women were incorporated into the study. A validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was administered to assess intake during the preceding seven days. The median predicted dietary cadmium intake among the 158 women studied was 25.29 μg/day (18.62–35.00) and 2.74 μg/kg body weight/week (b.w./w) (1.92–3.83). Dietary lead intake was 43.85 μg/day (35.09–51.45) and 4.82 μg/kg b.w./w (3.67–6.13). The observed dietary mercury intake was 9.55 μg/day (7.18–13.57) and 1.02 μg/kg b.w./w (0.71–1.48). Comparisons, in terms of heavy metal intake, showed no significant results after further adjusting for energy intake. No statistically significant correlations between heavy metal intake and the QUS, DXA and pQCT parameters were observed. Levels of dietary exposure of cadmium, lead and mercury were mostly within the recommendations. We did not find associations between the QUS, DXA and pQCT parameters and the dietary intake of the studied heavy metals in healthy premenopausal women. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy metals; food; dietary intake; bone health; women’s health; premenopause; bone mineral density heavy metals; food; dietary intake; bone health; women’s health; premenopause; bone mineral density
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Lavado-García, J.M.; Puerto-Parejo, L.M.; Roncero-Martín, R.; Moran, J.M.; Pedrera-Zamorano, J.D.; Aliaga, I.J.; Leal-Hernández, O.; Canal-Macias, M.L. Dietary Intake of Cadmium, Lead and Mercury and Its Association with Bone Health in Healthy Premenopausal Women. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1437.

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