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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1294; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111294

Frequency of Loud Snoring and Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Adults: Results from the Health Examinees (HEXA) Study

1
Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, 103 Daehakro, Jongnogu, Seoul 03080, Korea
2
Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, 103 Daehakro, Jongnogu, Seoul 03080, Korea
3
Department of Food and Nutrition, Chung-Ang University, Gyeonggi-do 17546, Korea
4
JW Lee Center for Global Medicine, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, IhwaJang-gil 71 Jongno-gu, Seoul 03087, Korea 03087
5
Department of Family Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehakro, Jongnogu, Seoul 03080, Korea
6
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, 103 Daehakro, Jongnogu, Seoul 03080, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 22 October 2017 / Published: 26 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
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Abstract

Studies regarding the association between snoring and metabolic abnormalities have been inconsistent. We examine whether snoring frequency and obstructive sleep apnea markers are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Koreans aged 40–69 years. A total of 72,885 subjects (24,856 men, 48,029 women) from the Health Examinees Gem study between 2009 and 2013 were included. Snoring frequency was grouped into five categories (never, 1–3/month, 1–3/week, 4–5/week, 6+/week). Obstructive sleep apnea markers included breathing interruptions and awakenings. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated through logistic regression. Compared with non-snorers, those who snore 6+/week were associated with increased odds for MetS (OR: 2.07, 95% CI: 1.91–2.25, p-trend < 0.0001 among men; OR: 1.45, CI: 1.33–1.58, p-trend < 0.0001 among women). Snoring frequency is associated with MetS and its components in both men and women. Snoring and obstructive sleep apnea markers are important indicators of sleep quality, which may facilitate early detection of sleep disorders and further complications such as MetS. View Full-Text
Keywords: snoring; metabolic syndrome; epidemiology; health examinees study; Korean snoring; metabolic syndrome; epidemiology; health examinees study; Korean
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Kim, C.E.; Shin, S.; Lee, H.-W.; Lim, J.; Lee, J.-K.; Kang, D. Frequency of Loud Snoring and Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Adults: Results from the Health Examinees (HEXA) Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1294.

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