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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1129;

The Study of Titanium and Zirconium Ions in Water by MPT-LTQ Mass Spectrometry in Negative Mode

School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Shangrao Normal University, Jiangxi 334001, China
Information Engineering Faculty, Jiangxi Modern Polytechnic College, Nanchang 330095, China
Jiangxi Key Laboratory for Mass Spectrometry and Instrumentation, East China University of Technology, Nanchang 330013, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 July 2017 / Revised: 3 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1556 KB, uploaded 27 September 2017]   |  


Microwave plasma torches (MPTs) can be used as simple and low power-consumption ambient ion sources. When MPT-mass spectrometry (MPT-MS) is applied in the detection of some metal elements, the metallic ions exhibit some novel features which are significantly different with those obtained by the traditional inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and may be helpful for metal element analysis. As the representative elements of group IVA, titanium and zirconium are both of importance and value in modern industry, and they have impacts on human health. Here, we first provide a study on the complex anions of titanium and zirconium in water by using the MPT as ion source and a linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LTQ-MS). These complex anions were produced in the plasma flame by an aqueous solution flowing through the central tube of the MPT, and were introduced into the inlet of the mass spectrometry working in negative ion mode to get the feature mass spectrometric signals. Moreover, the feature fragment patterns of these ions in multi-step collision- induced dissociation processes have been explained. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) using the MS2 (the second tandem mass spectrometry) procedure was estimated to be at the level of 10μg/L for titanium and 20 μg/L for zirconium with linear dynamics ranges that cover at least two orders of magnitude, i.e., between 0–500 μg/L and 20–200 μg/L, respectively. These experimental data demonstrated that the MPT-MS is a promising and useful tool in field analysis of titanium and zirconium ions in water, and can be applied in many fields, such as environmental control, hydrogeology, and water quality inspection. In addition, MPT-MS could also be used as a supplement of ICP-MS for the rapid and on-site analysis of metal ions. View Full-Text
Keywords: microwave plasma torch; ambient mass spectrometry; titanium; zirconium microwave plasma torch; ambient mass spectrometry; titanium; zirconium

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Yang, J.; Zheng, M.; Liu, Q.; Yang, M.Z.C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, Z. The Study of Titanium and Zirconium Ions in Water by MPT-LTQ Mass Spectrometry in Negative Mode. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1129.

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