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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(1), 50;

The Effects of Age, Period, and Cohort on Mortality from Ischemic Heart Disease in China

Department of Pharmacy Administration and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710061, China
Center for Drug Safety and Policy Research, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710061, China
School of Medicine and Health Management, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China
Department of Behavior Science and Health Education, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, China
Department of Public Affairs and Management, School of Political Science and Public Administration, Wuhan University, 299 Bayi Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan 430072, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter Clifton
Received: 10 December 2016 / Revised: 10 December 2016 / Accepted: 22 December 2016 / Published: 7 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1105 KB, uploaded 7 January 2017]   |  


In contrast with most developed countries, mortality due to ischemic heart disease (IHD) continues to rise in China. We examined the effects of age, period, and cohort on IHD mortality in urban and rural populations from 1987 to 2013 to identify the drivers of this trend. Region-specific data on annual IHD mortality among adults aged 20 to 84 years and corresponding population statistics were collected. We then tested for age, period, and cohort effects using the Intrinsic Estimator approach. Our results indicated that IHD mortality in China increased significantly over the three decades studied. There was a log-linear increase in the age effect on IHD mortality as those aged 80–84 showed 277 and 161 times greater IHD mortality risk than those aged 20–24 in urban and rural populations, respectively. While there was an upward trend in the period effect in both populations, the influence of the cohort effect on mortality decreased over time for those born from 1904 to 1993. The age, period, and cohort effects on mortality in China were generally comparable between urban and rural populations. The results suggest that population aging is a major driver behind the rapid rise in IHD mortality. Increased exposure to air pollution may also have played a role in driving the period effect View Full-Text
Keywords: age-period-cohort analysis; ischemic heart disease; mortality; China age-period-cohort analysis; ischemic heart disease; mortality; China

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Chang, J.; Li, B.; Li, J.; Sun, Y. The Effects of Age, Period, and Cohort on Mortality from Ischemic Heart Disease in China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 50.

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